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Advocates for Maintenance cases

Ved legal is Associated with expertise Lawyers in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune, and have vast experience in the Family related issues which arises after marriage, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below is the brief description of the Maintenance of Wife under Hindu Adoptions & Maintenance Act, 1956.

Maintenance of Wife under Hindu Adoptions & Maintenance Act, 1956:-
Maintenance, is the support to live life having provision for food, clothing, residence, education, medical attendance and treatment and shelter which, when denies, are required immediately to be granted and cannot await the duration of a long trial. It is relevant to notice, in that behalf, that the provisions of section 18 (1) give absolute entitlement to Hindu wife to be maintained by her husband during her life time.

Maintenance of wife:-

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section, a Hindu wife, whether married before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be entitled to be maintained by her husband during her life time.

(2) A Hindu wife shall be entitled to live separately from her husband without forfeiting her claim to maintenance-

(a) if he is guilty of desertion, that is to say, of abandoning her without reasonable cause and without her consent or against her wish, or willfully neglecting her.

(b) if has treated her with such cruelty as to cause a reasonable apprehension in her mind that it will be harmful or injuries to live with her husband.

(c) if he is suffering from a virulent form of leprosy.

(d) if he has any other wife living.

(e) if he keeps a concubine in the same house in which his wife is living or habitually resides with a concubine elsewhere.

(f) if he has ceased to be a Hindu by conversion to another religion.

(g) if there is any other cause justifying living separately.

(3) A Hindu wife shall not be entitled to separate residence and maintenance from her husband if she is unchaste or ceases to be a Hindu by conversion to another religion.

COMMENTS

Interim maintenance

The right to claim interim maintenance in a suit is a substantive right under section 18 of the Act. Since no form is prescribed to enforce the said right civil court in exercise of its inherent power can grant interim maintenance; Purusottam Mahakud v. Smt. Annapurna Mahakud , AIR 1997 Ori 73.

Maintenance pendente lite

After considering the status of the husband the wife should be awarded maintenance pendente lite, even though there is no separate provision in the Act for grant of maintenance pendente lite. The obligation to maintain the wife remains on the husband even though the wife might be living separately. The suit under section 18 of the Act may take decades to decide, the wife in the first instance be forced to face starvation and then subsequently is granted maintenance from the date of filing of suit. Such a view will be against the very intent and spirit of section 18 of the Act. It is settled law that a court empowered to grant a substantive relief is competent to award it on interim basis as well, even though there is no express provision in the statute to grant it; Neelam Malhotra v. Rajinder Malhotra, AIR 1994 Del 234.

Maintenance to wife/widow

Widow has no charge on separate property of husband. Neither section 18 relating to maintenance of wife nor section 21 dealing with widow provides for any charge for maintenance on separate property of husband; Sadhu Singh v. Gurdwara Sahib Narike , AIR 2006 SC 3282.

Separate residence and maintenance

(i) The wife had been living alone and all the children had been brought up by her without any assistance and help from the husband and there was a clear case of desertion, the wife was entitled to separate residence and maintenance; Meera Nireshwalia v. Sukumar Nireshwalia, AIR 1994 Mad 168.

(ii) The thoughtless action of the husband of evicting the wife from the house where she had been living in collusion with the purchasers of the house and the police inflicted a deep wound on her amounting to cruelty, the wife was entitled to live separately and claim maintenance; Meera Nireshwalia v. Sukumar Nireshwalia, AIR 1994 Mad 168.

(iii) The claim for maintenance by a wife can also be sustained under clause (g) even on a ground covered by one or other clauses i.e. clause (a) to (f) of section 18(2) substantially but not fully. Merely because the wife fails to strictly prove the specific grounds urged by her, she cannot be denied relief; Meera Nireshwalia v. Sukumar Nireshwalia, AIR 1994 Mad 168.

19. Maintenance of widowed daughter-in-law.-

(1) A Hindu wife, whether married before or after the commencement of this Act, shall be entitled to be maintained after the death of her husband by her father-in-law.

Provided and to the extent that she is unable to maintain herself out of her own earnings or other property or, where she has no property of her own, is unable to obtain maintenance-

(a) from the estate of her husband or her father or mother, or

(b) from her son or daughter, if any, or his or her estate.

(2) Any obligation under sub-section (1) shall not be enforceable if the father-in-law has not the means to do so from any coparcenary property in his possession out of which the daughter-in-law has not obtained any share, and any such obligation shall case on the re-marriage of the daughter-in-law.

20. Maintenance of children and aged parents.-

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section a Hindu is bound, during his or her lifetime, to maintain his or her legitimate or illegitimate children and his or her aged or inform parents.

(2) A legitimate or illegitimate child may claim maintenance from his or her father or mother so long as the child is a minor.

(3) The obligation of a person to maintain his or her aged or infirm parent or a daughter who is unmarried extends in so far as the parent or the unmarried daughter, as the case may be, is unable to maintain himself or herself out of his or her own earnings or other property.

Explanation.- In this section “parent” includes a childless step-mother

21. Dependants defined.-

For the purposes of this chapter “dependants” means the following relatives of the deceased.

(i) his or her father.

(ii) his or her mother,

(iii) his widow, so long as she does not re-marry.

(iv) his or her son or the son of his predeceased son or the son of a predeceased son of his predeceased son, so long as he isn minor, provided and to the extent that he is unable to obtain maintenance, in the case of a grandson from his father’s or mother’s estate, and in the case of a great grand-son, from the estate of his father or mother or father or father’s mother.

(v) his or her unmarried daughter or the unmarried daughter of his predeceased son or the unmarried daughter of a predeceased son of his predeceased son, so long as she remains unmarried, provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance, in the case of a grand-daughter from her father’s or mother’s estate and in the case of a grand-daughter form her father’s or mother’s estate and in the case of a great-grand-daughter from the estate of her father or mother or father’s father or father’s mother.

(vi) his widowed daughter, provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance –

(a) from the estate of her husband, or

(b) from her son or daughter if any, or his or her estate, or

(c) from her father-in-law or his father or the estate of either of them.

(vii) any widow of his son or of a son of his predeceased son, so long as she does not remarry: provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance from her husband’s estate, or from her son or daughter, if any, or his or her estate, or in the case of a grandson’s widow, also from her father-in-law’s estate.

(viii) his or her minor illegitimate son, so long as he remains a minor.

(ix) his or her illegitimate daughter, so long as she remains unmarried.

22. Maintenance of dependants, –

(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2) the heirs of a deceased Hindu are bound to maintain the dependants of the deceased out of the estate inherited by them from the deceased.

(2) Where a dependant has not obtained, by testamentary or intestate-succession, any share in the estate of a Hindu dying after the commencement of this Act, the dependant shall be entitled, subject to the provisions of this Act, to maintenance from those who take the estate.

(3) The liability of each of the persons who takes the estate shall be in proportion to the value of the share or part of the estate taken by him or her.

(4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2) or sub-section (3), no person who is himself or herself a dependant shall be liable to contribute to the maintenance of others, if he or she has obtained a share or part, the value of which is, or would, if the liability to contribute were enforced, become less than what would be awarded to him or her by way of maintenance under this Act.

23. Amount of maintenance.-

(1) It shall be in the discretion of the Court to determine whether any, and if so what, maintenance shall be awarded under the provisions of this Act, and in doing so, the court shall have due regard to the considerations set out sub-section (2), or sub-section (3), as the case may be, so far as they are applicable.

(2) In determining the amount of maintenance, if any, to be award to a wife, children or aged or infirm parents under this Act, regard shall be had to –

(a) the position and status of the parties.

(b) the reasonable wants of the claimant

(c) if the claimant is living separately, whether the claimant is justified in doing so,

(d) the value of the claimant’s property and any income derived from such property, or from the claimants.

(e) the number of persons entitled to maintenance, if any, to be awarded to a dependant under this Act, regard shall be had to –

(3) In determining the amount of maintenance, if any, to be awarded to a dependant under this Act, regard shall be had to –

(a) the net value of the estate of the deceased after providing for the payment of his debts.

(b) the provisions, if any, made under a will of the deceased in respect of the dependant.

(c) the degree of relationship between the two.

(d) the reasonable wants of the dependants.

(e) the past relations between the dependant and the deceased.

(f) the value of the property of the dependant and any income derived from such property, or from his or her earnings or from any other source.

(g) the number of dependants entitled to maintenance under this Act.

Advocates for Mutual consent Divorce in Pune

Advocates for Divorce in Pune:-

Ved legal is an expertise team working on issues related to family matters through their Associated Lawyers and Consultants, in the first instance we try to resolve the issues through reconciliation or settlement between the parties. We try to save the relation as it is not just two person who gets separated but two families their children if any.

Divorce Law under section 13B:-

Effect of divorce a petition for divorce is not like any other commercial suit. A divorce not only affects the parties, their children, if any, and their families but the society also feels its reverberations. Stress should always be on preserving the institution of marriage. That is the requirement of law. The Family Courts should endeavour, in the first instance to effect reconciliation or settlement between the parties. Even where the family courts are not functioning, the objects and principles underlying the constitution of these courts can be kept in view by the Civil Court trying matrimonial causes.

Advocates for Divorce by Mutual Consent:-

It is an easiest way to dissolve the marriage, Divorce by Mutual Consent is subject to the provisions of this Act a petition for dissolution of marriage by a decree of divorce may be presented to the district court by both the parties to a marriage together, whether such marriage was solemnized before or after the commencement of the Marriage Laws (Amendment)Act,1976, on the ground that they have been living separately for a period of one year or more, that they have not been able to live together and that they have mutually agreed that the marriage should be dissolved.
A petition under S 13-B is not entertainable by the Appellate Court; it has to be filed in the original Court. A decree of divorce by mutual consent can be granted when and only when the Court is satisfied about (i) marriage having been solemnized between the parties; (ii) the parties have been living separately for more than a year before presenting the petition; (iii) they were not able to live together at the time of presenting the petition and continue to live apart; (iv) they had mutually agreed to dissolve the marriage before or at the time the petition was presented; and (v) the contents made in the petition are true and conditions under S.23 are fulfilled. The decree has to be passed only on mutual consent of both the parties the court cannot pass decree on initial consent to be passed.

Advocates in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in Pune

Ved legal is Associated with expertise Advocates in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune, and have vast experience in the Family issues which arises after marriage, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below is the brief description of the jurisdiction and procedure followed in Family Court.

Introduction

Marriage is an institution which is considered as sacred in India. But with the changing times marriage has become a subject of great judicial scrutiny. Before 1984 all family matters were seen by ordinary civil court judges who used to deal with matters like recovery of money or property. In 1984 the Government of India after the recommendation of the Law Commission in their 59th Report the family courts were created by a Gazette notification of the Central Government. This Act was known as ‘The Family Courts Act, 1984’
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Jurisdiction

1. Civil matters
The family courts exercise the entire jurisdiction which is exercised by any District Court or any subordinate civil court in the following matters-
• Matrimonial causes
• Maintenance and alimony of spouses
• Custody and guardianship of children
• Settlement of spousal property
2. Criminal matters
The judge is vested with the power exercisable by the Magistrate of First Class under Chapter IX of Code of Criminal Procedure section 125 which is Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents.
Powers of Family Court
1. The family court has the power to make their own procedure.
2. They are not required to record the oral statement of the witness at length.
3. The appeal from family courts lies directly to the High Court.
4. The Family Court can receive any document or statement even if it is not admissible under Indian Evidence Act 1872.

Procedure to be followed by family court
1. Section 9 provides that the family court should try to resolve the matter through conciliation and settlement.
2. If there is possibility of settlement of dispute the court should adjourn the proceedings until such settlement is arrived at.
3. The parties of the proceeding are not required to hire a legal practitioner; however they are entitled to appoint an ‘amicus curie’ to assist the parties in the settlement proceedings.
4. In camera proceedings can be ordered if the parties desire. (In camera proceedings means that the public is not allowed to see the proceedings)
5. Judgment should be concise with the statement of the case, determination of the decision and the reason for the decision.
6. Provisions of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 are applied in the enforcement of the order or the judgment.
7. The Court can take assistance of medical and welfare experts.
Appeal
1. Appeal from judgment or order of Family Court can be made to the High Court within 30 days of passing the order or the judgment.
2. The appeal can be on both question of law and question of fact.
3. The appeal should be heard by a High Court bench of two or more judges.
4. No appeal lies against an order which is passed with the consent of the parties.
Steps to follow for registering a suit in a Family Court
1. If a person wants to register a suit in the family court then he needs to describe all the details clearly on a watermarked paper and submitted along with the court fees.
2. Along with the suit papers the petitioner should attach an affidavit that all the facts stated in the plaint is true.
3. The papers are submitted to the registrar of the Family Court who verifies all the relevant documents.
4. These files are presented to the Principal Judge of the Family Court. After verification of each file and hearing the petitioners, the Principal Judge decides whether the suit is fit for registration.
5. The applicant files the summons form and gets the next date for hearing.

Advocates for Divorce cases

Ved legal is Associated with expertise Advocates in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune, and have vast experience in the Family issues which arises after marriage, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below are the grounds of divorce by which the Hindu Marriage can be dissolved.

Grounds for Dissolution of marriage by Husband or Wife

When can Husband file petition for divorce: – Any husband may present a petition to the District Court or to the High Court, praying that his marriage may be dissolved on the ground that the wife has, since the solemnization of marriage, his wife is guilty of adultery. Adultery is a matrimonial offence when there is sexual intercourse between married person and a person of the opposite sex i.e. a married male having sexual intercourse with a female who is not his wife.
When can Wife file petition for divorce: – Any Wife may present a petition to the District Court or to the High Court, praying that her marriage may be dissolved on the grounds that, since the marriage has been solemnized, her husband is guilty of adultery, or has exchanged his profession of Christianity for the profession of some other religion, and gone through a form of marriage with another woman, or Bigamy which means performing second marring another person, or of rape, sodomy or bestiality which means that the husband is causing physical forcing for sexual intercourse without consent of his wife.

Divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act 1955 –
(1) Any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground that the other party:-
i) Is living in adultery; or
ii) Has ceased to be a Hindu by conversion to another religion; or
iii) Has been incurably of unsound mind for a continuous period of not less than three years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition; or
iv) Has, for a period of not less than three years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition, been suffering from a virulent and incurable form of leprosy; or
v) had, for a period of not less than three years immediately preceding the presentation of the petition, been suffering from venereal disease in a communicable form; or
vi) Has renounced the world by entering any religious order; or
vii) has not been heard of as being alive for a period of seven years or more by those persons who would naturally have heard of it, had that party been alive; or
viii) Has not resumed cohabitation for a space of two years or upwards after the passing of a decree for judicial separation against that party; or
ix) Has failed to comply with a decree for restitution of conjugal rights for a period of two years or upwards after the passing of the decree.
(2) A wife may also present a petition for the dissolution of her marriage by a decree of divorce on the ground:-
i) In the case of any marriage solemnized before the commencement of this Act, that the husband had married again before such commencement or that any other wife of the husband married before such commencement was alive at the time of the solemnization of the marriage of the petitioner:
Provided that in either case the other wife is alive at the time of the presentation of the petition; or
ii) That the husband has, since the solemnization of the marriage, been guilty of rape, sodomy or bestiality.

Advocates for Custody of Child

We are experts in all branches of law with special expertise in Conveyance, Deemed Conveyance of Co-operative Housing Societies, Formation / Registration of Co-operate Law, Legal Consultancy on Annual Basis, Property Laws, Company Secretary Work (Corporate and Company Law), CSR Consulting, Society Accounting, Matrimonial and Divorce Law.

After Divorce the Custody of a child is a Question,and the Court Decided as to who the child will physically reside with. But Both parents continue to be natural guardians.

As per the Guideline of Court the custodial parent will be the primary caretaker responsible for the emotional, medical and educational needs of the child and the non-custodial parent who does not lose the rights over the child will have the right of access.

Over the years, there is a shift from custody and access being the ‘right of a parent’ to being the ‘right of a child’. The non-negotiable principle on which custody is decided is the ‘best interest and welfare of the child’. Who will best serve the child’s emotional, educational, social and medical needs is the only criteria.

The earning capacity of the parent does not determine custody but the capacity to provide a safe and secure environment does. A non-earning mother will not be disqualified but the earning father will be asked to provide child support. While the mother is the preferred custodial parent when the child is of a tender age, once the child attains a discernible age, his/her wishes will be considered while deciding the issue of custody and access.

Lawyers for Custody of Child in Pune

We are experts in all branches of law with special expertise in Conveyance, Deemed Conveyance of Co-operative Housing Societies, Formation / Registration of Co-operate Law, Legal Consultancy on Annual Basis, Property Laws, Company Secretary Work (Corporate and Company Law), CSR Consulting, Society Accounting, Matrimonial and Divorce Law.

Laws on Custody of Child in India, In the matrimonial proceedings the question of custody, education and maintenance of children also crop up. The courts are asked upon to decide in respect of custody of children during the pendency of trial. The question of custody of children is an important matter which affects the children and parents emotionally, economically and socially. The matrimonial courts have been empowered under the matrimonial enactments to decide such questions and pass orders relating to custody, education and maintenance of the children from time to time. Such orders can be modified, revoked or changed. The courts exercised jurisdiction over children only if it has jurisdiction in the main petition. If the matrimonial proceedings are dismissed by the court, proceedings relating to children terminate automatically. A provision or order may be made by the court for the custody, maintenance and education; of minor children before passing of a decree or in the decree itself or even if a decree has been passed. Passing of a decree in the main proceeding does not put an end to the courts jurisdiction as it retains the power to pass orders in respect of custody, maintenance and education of the children even after passing such decree. The guiding principle for passing such orders is but approval things “just and proper” the interpretation which has been given to these words “welfare of the minor”. Though the principle of welfare of the minor is the paramount consideration but the court can also take consideration, the wishes of the children also. To ascertain the benefit of the the court has to consider all other factors such as age, sex or wishes of the child. Thus, the power conferred upon the matrimonial courts is of considerable importance which has to be exercised cautiously.

Section 26 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 deals with Custody of Children
In any proceeding under this Act, the court may, from time-to-time, pass such interim orders and make such provisions in the decree as it may deem just and proper with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children, consistently with their wishes, wherever possible and may, after the decree, upon application by petition for the purposes make from time-to-time, all such orders and provisions with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of such children as might have been made by such decree or interim orders in case the proceeding for obtaining such decree were still pending and the court may also from time-to-time revoke, suspend or vary any such orders and provisions previously made:

Provided that the application with respect to the maintenance and education of the minor children, pending the proceeding for obtaining such decree, shall as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of service of notice on the respondent.

Section 38 of the Special Marriage Act, 1954 deals with Custody of Children (Court marriage or couple from different faith)
In any proceeding under Chapter V or Chapter VI the District Court may, from time-to-time, pass such interim orders and make such provisions in the decree as it may seem to it to be just and proper with respect to the custody, maintenance and education of minor children, consistently with their wishes wherever possible, and may, after the decree, upon application by petition for the purpose, make, revoke, suspend or vary, from time-to-time, all such orders and provisions with respect to the custody, maintenance education of such children as might have been made by such decree or interim orders in case the proceedings for obtaining such decree were still pending.

Provided that the application with respect to the maintenance and education of the minor children, during the proceeding, under Chapter V or Chapter VI, shall as far as possible, be disposed of within sixty days from the date of service of the notice on the respondent.