COMPANY REGISTRATION PROCESS
There are 5 types of companies that can be registered in India
• Sole Proprietorship Firm
• Partnership Firm
• One Person Company
• Limited Liability Partnership
• Private Limited Company
1. Sole Proprietorship Firm
A sole proprietorship business is where a single individual runs the business. There is no separation between the legal identities of the business and the businessman. In other words, business debts are the businessman’s own debts. His liability is unlimited and he is personally responsible to bear all losses of the business.
Following are some essential features of a sole-proprietorship:
• Easy to form
• One person ownership
• Unlimited liability
• No separation between business and business owner
• Freedom of decision making
• Tax benefits.
• Business exists as long as the owner does.
Registration of Sole Proprietorship Firm
There is no formal process for registering a Sole-proprietorship in India. Therefore, the existence of a sole proprietorship business can be established only through opening a bank account in the name of the proprietorship firm or obtaining licenses required for conducting the business under various other acts such as:
• Shops and Establishments, for the premises.
• FSSAI License Food License, if you are thinking to start food truck, restaurants, food joints, food item or consumable item packaging, food item or cosumable item delivery etc.
• GST Registration It is a mandatory for all Business or Professional entities with turnover exceeding INR 20 lakhs are required to obtain Goods & Services Tax (GST) registration compliance
• Trade License, issued by the municipal corporation of a city, allows a business owner to carry on an activity or manufacture or exchange of any commodity.
• Import Export Code (IEC), if you want to import or export.
However, please note that you don’t need to register under all these acts. The kind of registration will depend upon a) type of your business b) expected annual turnover and c) location.
2. Partnership Firm
A partnership firm is a business structure in which two or more individuals manage and operate a business in accordance with the terms and objectives set out in a Partnership Deed. All the partners have unlimited liability, which means they are personally liable for the debts of the business.
Following are some essential features of a Partnership:
• Aim is to share profits and not losses.
• Losses, if any, will be borne by partners in their profit sharing ratio.
• Only persons who are competent to contract# can form a partnership.
• A minor cannot be a partner in a partnership. But, he is allowed to share the profits from a partnership business.
• No partner is allowed to transfer his share in partnership to any other person without the consent of all the other partners.
• There is a presumption of utmost good faith between partners.
• Every partner contributes to the business in some form or the other. It may be in the form of time, money, skills and/or goodwill.
Registration of Partnership Firm:
A partnership firm can be registered whether at the time of its formation or even subsequently. You need to file an application with the Registrar of Firms of the area in which your business is located.
Ensure that the following documents and prescribed fees are enclosed with the registration application :
• Application for Registration in the prescribed Form – I
• Duly filled Specimen of Affidavit
• Certified copy of the Partnership deed
• Proof of ownership of the place of business or the rental/lease agreement.
Application for partnership registration should include the following information:
• Name of your firm
• Name of the place where business is carried on
• Names of any other place where business is carried on
• Date of partners joining the firm
• Full name and permanent address of partners.
• Duration of the firm
• Every partner needs to verify and sign the application
Once the Registrar of Firms is satisfied that the application procedure has been duly complied with, he shall record an entry of the statement in the Register of Firms and issue a Certificate of Registration.
3. One Person Company
The concept of One Person Company (OPC) was introduced by the Companies Act of 2013. It is a cross or hybrid between the sole proprietorship and company forms of business and combines the best features of both. As the name suggests, it allows a single individual to form a company. It combines the freedom of a sole proprietorship business with the limited liability and various other benefits that come with operating as a company.
Following are some essential features of a One Person Company:
• Any natural person can form a company. i.e. an individual
• The person must be an Indian citizen or a person who is resident in India
• Such person will be the shareholder and member of the company. No other shareholder is required.
• Such shareholder must nominate a person to act as his nominee to act as the shareholder/member in the event of his/her death incapacity.
• Consent must be obtained from a person before designating him/her as the nominee.
• An OPC must have a minimum of one director.
• The person forming the company may also act as the director.
• Such company can only be incorporated as a private company.
• It may be a company limited by shares, by guarantee, or an unlimited company.
• Minimum capital requirements are the same as applicable to a private company i.e. INR One (1) Lakh.
4. Limited Liability Partnership
An LLP is a unique mode of doing business which offers a combination of the flexibility of a partnership and limited liability of a company. It is governed by the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008. An LLP is the most preferred route taken by startups to incorporate their business.
Following are some essential features of a LLP:
• It is a corporate body.
• It is a legal person separate from its partners.
• All the partners have limited liability.
• It provides perpetual succession to the business.
• Requires at least two partners and at least two individuals as designated partners.
• At least one designated partner must be a resident of India.
• Winding up may be voluntary or may be initiated by a tribunal/High Court.
• The Indian Partnership Act does not apply to an LLP.
• The Central Government is allowed to apply provisions of Companies Act to an LLP.
5. Private Limited Company
Generically defined, a private company would be an association of persons who share a common purpose and pool their resources in order to achieve that purpose.
As per The Companies Act, 2013, a minimum of two persons can form a private company.
Following are some essential features of a Private Limited Company:
• Huge capital
• Raise capital from angel investors, venture funds etc.
• Maximum number of members is 200 for private company.
• Limited Liability of all the members.
• Separate Legal Entity
• The memorandum must state the word ‘private limited’ with the name of the company.
• Minimum number of directors is 2 for a private company.
• Right to transfer shares is restricted in the case of a private company.
• The minimum capital requirement of INR 1 lakh for private companies
• Use of common seal is optional.
Private Limited Company – The most successful business type.
In a private company, the business owners hold all shares of the company privately. Shareholders may operate the business themselves, or hire directors to manage the company on their behalf. Registering a private limited company results in protection of personal assets, access to more resources, financial assistance and greater credibility.