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Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law

What is Alimony?

When two people are married, they have an obligation to support each other. This does not necessarily end with divorce. Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the right of maintenance extends to any person economically dependent on the marriage. This will include, therefore, spouse, dependent children and even indigent parents.
The claim of either spouse (though, in the vast majority of cases, it is the wife), however, depends on the husband having sufficient means. When deciding how much alimony is to be paid, the courts will take into account the earning potential of the husband, his ability to regenerate his fortune (in case, say, the property is given to the wife) and his liabilities.

In case either spouse is unable to pay for the divorce, these expenses would also be paid by the spouse that does have an income.

Factors that influences the duration and amount of alimony

In a contested divorce, the alimony, its amount and tenure, depend upon the length of marriage. A divorce after a decade of marriage entitles the spouse to a life-long alimony. The other essential factors that need to be considered are:

1. Age of the spouse (or the person who is entitled to receive the alimony)
2. Economic condition or the earnings of the person who is to provide the alimony
3. The health of both spouse (the failing health or a medical condition of one of the spouses who is going to receive the alimony may act in favour of him or her. They can claim a larger alimony on the basis of their failing health).
4. The spouse that retains custody of the child would be entitled to either pay lesser alimony or be entitled to a greater amount while the child is a minor.

Types of Alimony / Spousal Support

Before an ex-spouse can even be eligible for alimony there has to be a valid marriage. If the marriage ended in annulment or was considered void, generally, there is no legal basis for awarding alimony unless state statutes provide otherwise.

Alimony awards can come in a variety of forms:
• Temporary Alimony
• Rehabilitative Alimony
• Permanent Alimony

Additionally, more than one category of award can be awarded in the same divorce action.

TEMPORARY ALIMONY

Temporary alimony is often awarded during the period the divorce proceeding is pending. This type of award becomes necessary due to the length of time. It could take before the final decree is issued and a permanent alimony award is made.

REHABILITATIVE ALIMONY

Generally, rehabilitative alimony is used to support the spouse during a period of retraining or re-education for re-entry into the workforce, thereby enabling the spouse to become self-supporting in not too distant future. Since it provides a temporary fix to help the party regain marketable skills, it can be classified as another form of temporary alimony.

The courts are more compelled to award this type of alimony where the spouse seeking it, has some potential for establishing a viable career.

PERMANENT ALIMONY

Permanent alimony becomes effective upon the final dissolution of the marriage. Additionally, it can come in various forms:
• Periodic payments (often monthly)
• Lump sum payments
• Annuity payments
• Trust payments
• In-kind payments (e.g., making direct payment for services)

Despite the seemingly permanent nature of this type of award, it usually does not last forever (i.e., until the recipient’s death). In most jurisdictions there is no prescribed period for alimony payments. For instance, the California statute which deals with the duration of alimony states:
Despite the nomenclature, courts consider various factors before making the decision as to which party, if any, should be entitled to alimony.

FACTORS IN ALIMONY/SPOUSAL SUPPORT

Alimony awards are generally based upon the needs and abilities of each party, using factors such as:
• Age of the parties;
• Health and physical condition of the parties;
• The earning capacity of the parties(e.g., taking into account the supported spouse’s marketable skills vis-à-vis the current job market for those skills);
• Present income of the parties;
• The extent to which the supported party contributed to the attainment of an education, training, a career position, or a license by the supporting party;
• The ability of the supporting party to pay spousal support, taking into account the supporting party’s earning capacity, earned and unearned income, assets, and standard of living;
• The duration of the marriage;
• The needs of each party based on the standard of living established during the marriage; and
• The jurisdiction of the marriage (in some jurisdictions).
When divorce statutes were fault-based, there were two additional factors courts considered: (1) degree of fault and (2) maintenance of status.

ENFORCEMENT OF ALIMONY AWARDS

An alimony award is essentially a court order, thereby making payment mandatory—based on the dictates of the order. If the payor fails to fulfill those obligations, he or she will be in contempt of court. As such, the court can take the necessary steps to compel the payor to comply with the order. Specifically, courts can choose either to pursue a civil or criminal proceeding against the scofflaw.

A civil proceeding has an underlying purpose of getting the delinquent payor to make the required payments rather than punishing the delinquent payor. Conversely, a criminal proceeding is used to punish the offender, which usually results in the imposition of some jail time. Remedies for nonpayment can include:

• Imprisonment for a prescribed period of time (despite the threat of imprisonment, many jurisdictions are unwilling to throw their debtors in jail)
• Judgment against the non-complying party (also enforceable in other states under the doctrine of full faith and credit)
• Seizure of property such as tax refunds
• Liens on real property
• Wage garnishments

If the reason behind nonpayment is due to an inability to pay, that argument can be advanced in a petition for modification of the award.

By |February 28th, 2018|Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law|0 Comments

Alimony and Maintenance Under Indian Law

Types of Alimony / Spousal Support

Before an ex-spouse can even be eligible for alimony there has to be a valid marriage. If the marriage ended in annulment or was considered void, generally, there is no legal basis for awarding alimony unless state statutes provide otherwise.
Alimony awards can come in a variety of forms:

• Temporary Alimony
• Rehabilitative Alimony
• Permanent Alimony
Additionally, more than one category of award can be awarded in the same divorce action.

Temporary alimony is often awarded during the period the divorce proceeding is pending. This type of award becomes necessary due to the length of time. It could take before the final decree is issued and a permanent alimony award is made.

REHABILITATIVE ALIMONY
Generally, rehabilitative alimony is used to support the spouse during a period of retraining or re-education for re-entry into the workforce, thereby enabling the spouse to become self-supporting in not too distant future. Since it provides a temporary fix to help the party regain marketable skills, it can be classified as another form of temporary alimony.
The courts are more compelled to award this type of alimony where the spouse seeking it, has some potential for establishing a viable career.

PERMANENT ALIMONY
Permanent alimony becomes effective upon the final dissolution of the marriage. Additionally, it can come in various forms:
• Periodic payments (often monthly)
• Lump sum payments
• Annuity payments
• Trust payments
• In-kind payments (e.g., making direct payment for services)

Despite the seemingly permanent nature of this type of award, it usually does not last forever (i.e., until the recipient’s death). In most jurisdictions there is no prescribed period for alimony payments. For instance, the California statute which deals with the duration of alimony states:
Despite the nomenclature, courts consider various factors before making the decision as to which party, if any, should be entitled to alimony.

FACTORS IN ALIMONY/SPOUSAL SUPPORT
Alimony awards are generally based upon the needs and abilities of each party, using factors such as:
• Age of the parties;
• Health and physical condition of the parties;
• The earning capacity of the parties(e.g., taking into account the supported spouse’s marketable skills vis-à-vis the current job market for those skills);
• Present income of the parties;
• The extent to which the supported party contributed to the attainment of an education, training, a career position, or a license by the supporting party;
• The ability of the supporting party to pay spousal support, taking into account the supporting party’s earning capacity, earned and unearned income, assets, and standard of living;
• The duration of the marriage;
• The needs of each party based on the standard of living established during the marriage; and
• The jurisdiction of the marriage (in some jurisdictions).
When divorce statutes were fault-based, there were two additional factors courts considered: (1) degree of fault and (2) maintenance of status.
ENFORCEMENT OF ALIMONY AWARDS
An alimony award is essentially a court order, thereby making payment mandatory—based on the dictates of the order. If the payor fails to fulfill those obligations, he or she will be in contempt of court. As such, the court can take the necessary steps to compel the payor to comply with the order. Specifically, courts can choose either to pursue a civil or criminal proceeding against the scofflaw.
A civil proceeding has an underlying purpose of getting the delinquent payor to make the required payments rather than punishing the delinquent payor. Conversely, a criminal proceeding is used to punish the offender, which usually results in the imposition of some jail time. Remedies for nonpayment can include:
• Imprisonment for a prescribed period of time (despite the threat of imprisonment, many jurisdictions are unwilling to throw their debtors in jail)
• Judgment against the non-complying party (also enforceable in other states under the doctrine of full faith and credit)
• Seizure of property such as tax refunds
• Liens on real property
• Wage garnishments
If the reason behind nonpayment is due to an inability to pay, that argument can be advanced in a petition for modification of the award.

THE OBLIGATIONS IN ALIMONY AFTER DIVORCE

Once the order for alimony is directed, the one who pays support must continue to do so until the receiving partner weds again. If there are defaulting payments, such lapses or not delivering on the right date, one faces repercussions. This may include ordering the employer of the husband to deduct the spousal alimony from his monthly salary and make a direct recompense to his wife. One may also face contempt of court.
HOW ALIMONY IS DECIDED

Wife is earning
When the wife earns her own money, the law investigates the financial condition of the husband. If the husband is very prosperous then he is ordered to pay alimony to his ex-wife.

When the wife is non-earning
When the wife is non-earning, she is entitled to be paid alimony, which enables her to live on par with her husband’s financial status. The idea is to equalize the financial position of both spouses.

If the wife remarries
The husband is exonerated from paying his ex-wife alimony if she remarries. However, he will be liable to continue payment for the children.

Husband is jobless because of disability
In circumstances where the husband is sick, disabled or unable to earn a living, the wife pays alimony to her husband.

Duration of the marriage
Usually if the marriage is 10 years of age, the spousal support has to be life-long.

Age of spouse
The court takes into account the age of the spouse to be paid alimony. If he/she is young and has excellent career prospects, there is a possibility of a future job and income to support them. In this instance, the period of maintenance paid is shortened
Permanent Alimony and Maintenance under Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
Section 25 provides for the grant of permanent alimony and maintenance to any of the party to a marriage at the time of passing any decree under the Act or at any time subsequent thereto. The court shall take into account the status of opposite party in fixing the amount for maintenance. The court has been empowered to rescind or modify the order at any subsequent stage if the circumstances so warrant; and if petitioner becomes inchoate or remarries at any subsequent stage the court may at the instance of the other party vary, modify or rescind any such order in such manner as the court may deem just.

Sub-section (1) of Section 25 requires that an application must be made by the wife or the husband who is party to the main proceeding, if she or he wants the incidental relief of permanent alimony and such an application may be made in the main proceedings either before or at the time of passing the decree granting substantive relief of divorce or at any time subsequent to the passing of such decree.
“The relief of permanent alimony being an incidental relief it should not be a matter of any consequence whether the application for it is made prior to passing of the decree or subsequent to it. As a matter of fact, the relief of permanent alimony being a relief incidental to the granting of the substantive relief, it would be more consonant with reason that an application for such incidental relief should be maintainable after the passing of the decree granting the substantive relief.

After the amendment of the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976, the scope of the Act has widened and now it is mandatory for the court to grant full opportunity to the parties to substantiate their rival contentions by leading proper evidence. The court should take into account the other circumstances which may influence the grant or refusal of permanent alimony besides considering the income and conduct of the parties.
The right to permanent alimony accrues only when a decree has been passed in favour of the petition under Sections 9 to 13. In case no such decree has been passed in favour of the petitioner, the right to claim any maintenance or alimony is ruled out. Thus where a petition of the husband is dismissed under any of the sections i.e., Sections 9 to 14 the application for permanent maintenance filed by the wife under Section 25 of the Act will be rejected.

Still the wife could claim maintenance under Section 18(1) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 or under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 The court cannot entertain any claim for maintenance in any proceeding under Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which are maintainable under Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.
The provisions contained under Section 25 of the Act, are not controlled by Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956. It is not necessary for a wife who has obtained a decree of judicial separation upon finding that the husband has deserted her to prove desertion within the meaning of Section 18(2) (a) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act.

Section 25 confers a special right on the indigent spouse while the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act confers an absolute right.
Section 25 cannot be construed in such a manner as to hold that notwithstanding the nullity of marriage, the wife retains her status for purpose of applying for alimony and maintenance. The proper construction of Section 25 would be that where a marriage is admitted to be a nullity, the section will have application.

But where the question of nullity is in issue and its contentions the court has to proceed on the assumption until contrary is proved that the applicant is the wife. It is in that sense that Section 25 should be appreciated.
Under the section, permanent alimony can be granted even to an earring spouse and the mere fact that the wife did not comply with the decree for restitution of conjugal rights and that was the cause for passing of a decree against her, cannot by itself disentitle her to claim permanent alimony under this section.
The fact that the wife was a guilty spouse can only be taken as a relevant factor in assessing the conduct of the parties and in determining the amount of permanent alimony.

In an important case, Gulab v. Kamal, the husband got the decree of divorce against the wife on the ground of misconduct and adultery. The wife moved an application for maintenance under Section 25 of the Act. The court held that a decree passed against the applicant on the ground of unchastity is no bar to his or her claiming maintenance either at the time of passing such decree or any time subsequent thereto.
The court has ample discretion to grant or refuse maintenance and the extent to which to grant the same, depending on the facts and circumstances of each case. But an adulterous conduct on the part of wife subsequent to the order of maintenance in her favour after the decree of divorce is passed would certainly negate her claim to get maintenance allowance in future.

In Patel Dharmshree Premji v. Bai Shankar Kanji,’ the Gujarat High Court affirmed the above proposition and held that even a guilty party to a marriage could obtain permanent alimony. It has further been said that a mother claiming maintenance for herself cannot include the amount of maintenance for her children therein and she must bring a separate suit for the purpose. On the question of reducing the amount of maintenance under Section 25 of the Act in proceedings for judicial separation the fact that the wife had been leading an adulterous life would be relevant and significant.

Under this section application for permanent alimony can be moved by either party to the marriage. The provision for permanent alimony even after the grant of divorce or decree of nullity is the specialty of the Act. There may be circumstances in which divorce between the spouses could be decreed by the court yet it is felt necessary that some amount of maintenance be fixed.
For example, where after the performance of marriage the wife becomes victim of some veneral disease or leprosy and on that ground divorce is decreed in favour of husband, if no permanent arrangement is made for her unkeep and amount of maintenance is not specified for the purpose, her life would become too miserable. Keeping such eventualities in mind the provision for permanent maintenance has been made which is very much desirable and reasonable.

In Verna Kallia v. Jatinder Nath Kallia the husband a doctor had settled in foreign country leaving his wife and a marriageable daughter in India. The payment of maintenance was denied by the husband upon the ground that the husband obtained divorce in foreign country to which the wife had acquiesced by accepting the maintenance under foreign judgment.

The court held that the foreign judgment of divorce was not binding upon her. Upon the facts of the case relying the Supreme Court’s view given in Surinder Kaur Sandlin v. Harbax Singh Sandlin. Further court allowed the decree of divorce in favour of wife upon the ground of cruelty, desertion and adultery since her husband had married in foreign country and was having three children there. Considering the status of parties, their future necessities, and claim for maintenance by wife for herself and daughter was allowed at the rate of Rs. 10,000 per month. Husband was also directed to deposit Rs. 10 lakhs for marriage of his daughter.

In Suresh v. Phoolwanti, there was decree of judicial separation in favour of husband on the ground of wife’s renunciation, as she had become a Brahma Kumari after taking a vow of celebacy as per requirement of the seat. The court also passed an order of permanent alimony in favour of wife at the rate of Rs. 450/- per month. It was said by the court that even though the family life was disrupted on account of the act of the wife yet she was entitled to get permanent maintenance.

Simply because the wife had deserted her husband without any lawful excuse ultimately resulting in a decree of divorce against her, she could not be deprived of her right to claim permanent maintenance on that account after the said decree. But where a decree of judicial separation is passed in favour of the husband followed by a decree of divorce after two years on the ground that during that period the husband had made no effort to compromise and there was in fact no compromise between them, they said omission on his part would be relevant fact to be considered while passing an order of permanent alimony against him.

In Shanta Ram v. Dagoo Devi, the court held that Section 25 of the Act, confers upon a woman whose marriage is void or is declared to be void, a right of maintenance against her husband. The right of maintenance can be enforced by her not only in proceeding under Section 25 but also in any other proceeding where the validity of her marriage is determined.

It can be claimed by her not only during the lifetime of her husband but also after his death against the property of her husband. Of course, his right of maintenance is available only during her life time and ceases if she remarries.
Recently in Babu Shahab v. Leela Bai, Bombay High Court has given a very important decision on Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. After considering the fact, the Court upholding right of maintenance to “illegitimate wife” or faithful “mistress” by liberal construction of word “wife” as contained in Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act cannot be said to be a good law, arc required to be overruled to that extent. The Court observed that illegitimate wife too can claim maintenance.

In Abbayolla M. Subba Reddy v. Padmamma, The court held that if the marriage admittedly is nullity of the Hindu Marriage Act, section 25 of the Act is not applicable, the relief of maintenance cannot be granted.
The court is empowered under the section to take note of changed circumstances and vary the amount of maintenance. In such matters neither the principle of res-judicata nor of estoppel would have any application to frustrate proceedings on the application for increasing the amount of maintenance.

It is well recognised in Hindu law that the right of maintenance is a substantive and continuing right and the quantum of maintenance is variable from time to time. Hence the extension of the principle of res-judicata or of estoppel in matters relating to variation of the amount of maintenance is beyond all contemplations and outside the purview of judicial considerations.
Under the section the right to permanent maintenance comes to a close in the following circumstances:
(1) Where the wife or husband has remarried;
(2) Where the wife ceases to remain chaste and in the case of husband where be develops illicit relations with another woman

By |November 4th, 2017|Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law|0 Comments

Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law

Types of Alimony / Spousal Support

Before an ex-spouse can even be eligible for alimony there has to be a valid marriage. If the marriage ended in annulment or was considered void, generally, there is no legal basis for awarding alimony unless state statutes provide otherwise.
Alimony awards can come in a variety of forms:
• Temporary Alimony
• Rehabilitative Alimony
• Permanent Alimony

Additionally, more than one category of award can be awarded in the same divorce action.

TEMPORARY ALIMONY
Temporary alimony is often awarded during the period the divorce proceeding is pending. This type of award becomes necessary due to the length of time. It could take before the final decree is issued and a permanent alimony award is made.

REHABILITATIVE ALIMONY
Generally, rehabilitative alimony is used to support the spouse during a period of retraining or re-education for re-entry into the workforce, thereby enabling the spouse to become self-supporting in not too distant future. Since it provides a temporary fix to help the party regain marketable skills, it can be classified as another form of temporary alimony.
The courts are more compelled to award this type of alimony where the spouse seeking it, has some potential for establishing a viable career.

PERMANENT ALIMONY
Permanent alimony becomes effective upon the final dissolution of the marriage. Additionally, it can come in various forms:
• Periodic payments (often monthly)
• Lump sum payments
• Annuity payments
• Trust payments
• In-kind payments (e.g., making direct payment for services)
Despite the seemingly permanent nature of this type of award, it usually does not last forever (i.e., until the recipient’s death). In most jurisdictions there is no prescribed period for alimony payments. For instance, the California statute which deals with the duration of alimony states:
Despite the nomenclature, courts consider various factors before making the decision as to which party, if any, should be entitled to alimony.

FACTORS IN ALIMONY/SPOUSAL SUPPORT
Alimony awards are generally based upon the needs and abilities of each party, using factors such as:
• Age of the parties;
• Health and physical condition of the parties;
• The earning capacity of the parties(e.g., taking into account the supported spouse’s marketable skills vis-à-vis the current job market for those skills);
• Present income of the parties;
• The extent to which the supported party contributed to the attainment of an education, training, a career position, or a license by the supporting party;
• The ability of the supporting party to pay spousal support, taking into account the supporting party’s earning capacity, earned and unearned income, assets, and standard of living;
• The duration of the marriage;
• The needs of each party based on the standard of living established during the marriage; and
• The jurisdiction of the marriage (in some jurisdictions).
When divorce statutes were fault-based, there were two additional factors courts considered: (1) degree of fault and (2) maintenance of status.

ENFORCEMENT OF ALIMONY AWARDS
An alimony award is essentially a court order, thereby making payment mandatory—based on the dictates of the order. If the payor fails to fulfill those obligations, he or she will be in contempt of court. As such, the court can take the necessary steps to compel the payor to comply with the order. Specifically, courts can choose either to pursue a civil or criminal proceeding against the scofflaw.
A civil proceeding has an underlying purpose of getting the delinquent payor to make the required payments rather than punishing the delinquent payor. Conversely, a criminal proceeding is used to punish the offender, which usually results in the imposition of some jail time. Remedies for nonpayment can include:
• Imprisonment for a prescribed period of time (despite the threat of imprisonment, many jurisdictions are unwilling to throw their debtors in jail)
• Judgment against the non-complying party (also enforceable in other states under the doctrine of full faith and credit)
• Seizure of property such as tax refunds
• Liens on real property
• Wage garnishments
If the reason behind nonpayment is due to an inability to pay, that argument can be advanced in a petition for modification of the award.

THE OBLIGATIONS IN ALIMONY AFTER DIVORCE

Once the order for alimony is directed, the one who pays support must continue to do so until the receiving partner weds again. If there are defaulting payments, such lapses or not delivering on the right date, one faces repercussions. This may include ordering the employer of the husband to deduct the spousal alimony from his monthly salary and make a direct recompense to his wife. One may also face contempt of court.

HOW ALIMONY IS DECIDED

Wife is earning
When the wife earns her own money, the law investigates the financial condition of the husband. If the husband is very prosperous then he is ordered to pay alimony to his ex-wife.

When the wife is non-earning
When the wife is non-earning, she is entitled to be paid alimony, which enables her to live on par with her husband’s financial status. The idea is to equalize the financial position of both spouses.

If the wife remarries
The husband is exonerated from paying his ex-wife alimony if she remarries. However, he will be liable to continue payment for the children.

Husband is jobless because of disability
In circumstances where the husband is sick, disabled or unable to earn a living, the wife pays alimony to her husband.

Duration of the marriage
Usually if the marriage is 10 years of age, the spousal support has to be life-long.

Age of spouse
The court takes into account the age of the spouse to be paid alimony. If he/she is young and has excellent career prospects, there is a possibility of a future job and income to support them. In this instance, the period of maintenance paid is shortened
Permanent Alimony and Maintenance under Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
Section 25 provides for the grant of permanent alimony and maintenance to any of the party to a marriage at the time of passing any decree under the Act or at any time subsequent thereto. The court shall take into account the status of opposite party in fixing the amount for maintenance. The court has been empowered to rescind or modify the order at any subsequent stage if the circumstances so warrant; and if petitioner becomes inchoate or remarries at any subsequent stage the court may at the instance of the other party vary, modify or rescind any such order in such manner as the court may deem just.

Sub-section (1) of Section 25 requires that an application must be made by the wife or the husband who is party to the main proceeding, if she or he wants the incidental relief of permanent alimony and such an application may be made in the main proceedings either before or at the time of passing the decree granting substantive relief of divorce or at any time subsequent to the passing of such decree.
“The relief of permanent alimony being an incidental relief it should not be a matter of any consequence whether the application for it is made prior to passing of the decree or subsequent to it. As a matter of fact, the relief of permanent alimony being a relief incidental to the granting of the substantive relief, it would be more consonant with reason that an application for such incidental relief should be maintainable after the passing of the decree granting the substantive relief.

After the amendment of the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976, the scope of the Act has widened and now it is mandatory for the court to grant full opportunity to the parties to substantiate their rival contentions by leading proper evidence. The court should take into account the other circumstances which may influence the grant or refusal of permanent alimony besides considering the income and conduct of the parties.
The right to permanent alimony accrues only when a decree has been passed in favour of the petition under Sections 9 to 13. In case no such decree has been passed in favour of the petitioner, the right to claim any maintenance or alimony is ruled out. Thus where a petition of the husband is dismissed under any of the sections i.e., Sections 9 to 14 the application for permanent maintenance filed by the wife under Section 25 of the Act will be rejected.

Still the wife could claim maintenance under Section 18(1) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 or under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 The court cannot entertain any claim for maintenance in any proceeding under Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which are maintainable under Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.
The provisions contained under Section 25 of the Act, are not controlled by Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956. It is not necessary for a wife who has obtained a decree of judicial separation upon finding that the husband has deserted her to prove desertion within the meaning of Section 18(2) (a) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act.

Section 25 confers a special right on the indigent spouse while the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act confers an absolute right.
Section 25 cannot be construed in such a manner as to hold that notwithstanding the nullity of marriage, the wife retains her status for purpose of applying for alimony and maintenance. The proper construction of Section 25 would be that where a marriage is admitted to be a nullity, the section will have application.

But where the question of nullity is in issue and its contentions the court has to proceed on the assumption until contrary is proved that the applicant is the wife. It is in that sense that Section 25 should be appreciated.
Under the section, permanent alimony can be granted even to an earring spouse and the mere fact that the wife did not comply with the decree for restitution of conjugal rights and that was the cause for passing of a decree against her, cannot by itself disentitle her to claim permanent alimony under this section.

The fact that the wife was a guilty spouse can only be taken as a relevant factor in assessing the conduct of the parties and in determining the amount of permanent alimony.
In an important case, Gulab v. Kamal, the husband got the decree of divorce against the wife on the ground of misconduct and adultery. The wife moved an application for maintenance under Section 25 of the Act. The court held that a decree passed against the applicant on the ground of unchastity is no bar to his or her claiming maintenance either at the time of passing such decree or any time subsequent thereto.
The court has ample discretion to grant or refuse maintenance and the extent to which to grant the same, depending on the facts and circumstances of each case. But an adulterous conduct on the part of wife subsequent to the order of maintenance in her favour after the decree of divorce is passed would certainly negate her claim to get maintenance allowance in future.

In Patel Dharmshree Premji v. Bai Shankar Kanji,’ the Gujarat High Court affirmed the above proposition and held that even a guilty party to a marriage could obtain permanent alimony. It has further been said that a mother claiming maintenance for herself cannot include the amount of maintenance for her children therein and she must bring a separate suit for the purpose. On the question of reducing the amount of maintenance under Section 25 of the Act in proceedings for judicial separation the fact that the wife had been leading an adulterous life would be relevant and significant.

Under this section application for permanent alimony can be moved by either party to the marriage. The provision for permanent alimony even after the grant of divorce or decree of nullity is the specialty of the Act. There may be circumstances in which divorce between the spouses could be decreed by the court yet it is felt necessary that some amount of maintenance be fixed.
For example, where after the performance of marriage the wife becomes victim of some veneral disease or leprosy and on that ground divorce is decreed in favour of husband, if no permanent arrangement is made for her unkeep and amount of maintenance is not specified for the purpose, her life would become too miserable. Keeping such eventualities in mind the provision for permanent maintenance has been made which is very much desirable and reasonable.

In Verna Kallia v. Jatinder Nath Kallia the husband a doctor had settled in foreign country leaving his wife and a marriageable daughter in India. The payment of maintenance was denied by the husband upon the ground that the husband obtained divorce in foreign country to which the wife had acquiesced by accepting the maintenance under foreign judgment.

The court held that the foreign judgment of divorce was not binding upon her. Upon the facts of the case relying the Supreme Court’s view given in Surinder Kaur Sandlin v. Harbax Singh Sandlin. Further court allowed the decree of divorce in favour of wife upon the ground of cruelty, desertion and adultery since her husband had married in foreign country and was having three children there. Considering the status of parties, their future necessities, and claim for maintenance by wife for herself and daughter was allowed at the rate of Rs. 10,000 per month. Husband was also directed to deposit Rs. 10 lakhs for marriage of his daughter.

In Suresh v. Phoolwanti, there was decree of judicial separation in favour of husband on the ground of wife’s renunciation, as she had become a Brahma Kumari after taking a vow of celebacy as per requirement of the seat. The court also passed an order of permanent alimony in favour of wife at the rate of Rs. 450/- per month. It was said by the court that even though the family life was disrupted on account of the act of the wife yet she was entitled to get permanent maintenance.

Simply because the wife had deserted her husband without any lawful excuse ultimately resulting in a decree of divorce against her, she could not be deprived of her right to claim permanent maintenance on that account after the said decree. But where a decree of judicial separation is passed in favour of the husband followed by a decree of divorce after two years on the ground that during that period the husband had made no effort to compromise and there was in fact no compromise between them, they said omission on his part would be relevant fact to be considered while passing an order of permanent alimony against him.

In Shanta Ram v. Dagoo Devi, the court held that Section 25 of the Act, confers upon a woman whose marriage is void or is declared to be void, a right of maintenance against her husband. The right of maintenance can be enforced by her not only in proceeding under Section 25 but also in any other proceeding where the validity of her marriage is determined.

It can be claimed by her not only during the lifetime of her husband but also after his death against the property of her husband. Of course, his right of maintenance is available only during her life time and ceases if she remarries.
Recently in Babu Shahab v. Leela Bai, Bombay High Court has given a very important decision on Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. After considering the fact, the Court upholding right of maintenance to “illegitimate wife” or faithful “mistress” by liberal construction of word “wife” as contained in Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act cannot be said to be a good law, arc required to be overruled to that extent. The Court observed that illegitimate wife too can claim maintenance.

In Abbayolla M. Subba Reddy v. Padmamma, The court held that if the marriage admittedly is nullity of the Hindu Marriage Act, section 25 of the Act is not applicable, the relief of maintenance cannot be granted.
The court is empowered under the section to take note of changed circumstances and vary the amount of maintenance. In such matters neither the principle of res-judicata nor of estoppel would have any application to frustrate proceedings on the application for increasing the amount of maintenance.

It is well recognised in Hindu law that the right of maintenance is a substantive and continuing right and the quantum of maintenance is variable from time to time. Hence the extension of the principle of res-judicata or of estoppel in matters relating to variation of the amount of maintenance is beyond all contemplations and outside the purview of judicial considerations.
Under the section the right to permanent maintenance comes to a close in the following circumstances:
(1) Where the wife or husband has remarried;
(2) Where the wife ceases to remain chaste and in the case of husband where be develops illicit relations with another woman

By |October 26th, 2017|Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law|0 Comments

Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law

Types of Alimony / Spousal Support

Before an ex-spouse can even be eligible for alimony there has to be a valid marriage. If the marriage ended in annulment or was considered void, generally, there is no legal basis for awarding alimony unless state statutes provide otherwise.
Alimony awards can come in a variety of forms:

• Temporary Alimony
• Rehabilitative Alimony
• Permanent Alimony

Additionally, more than one category of award can be awarded in the same divorce action.

TEMPORARY ALIMONY
Temporary alimony is often awarded during the period the divorce proceeding is pending. This type of award becomes necessary due to the length of time. It could take before the final decree is issued and a permanent alimony award is made.

REHABILITATIVE ALIMONY
Generally, rehabilitative alimony is used to support the spouse during a period of retraining or re-education for re-entry into the workforce, thereby enabling the spouse to become self-supporting in not too distant future. Since it provides a temporary fix to help the party regain marketable skills, it can be classified as another form of temporary alimony.
The courts are more compelled to award this type of alimony where the spouse seeking it, has some potential for establishing a viable career.

PERMANENT ALIMONY
Permanent alimony becomes effective upon the final dissolution of the marriage. Additionally, it can come in various forms:
• Periodic payments (often monthly)
• Lump sum payments
• Annuity payments
• Trust payments
• In-kind payments (e.g., making direct payment for services)

Despite the seemingly permanent nature of this type of award, it usually does not last forever (i.e., until the recipient’s death). In most jurisdictions there is no prescribed period for alimony payments. For instance, the California statute which deals with the duration of alimony states:
Despite the nomenclature, courts consider various factors before making the decision as to which party, if any, should be entitled to alimony.

FACTORS IN ALIMONY/SPOUSAL SUPPORT
Alimony awards are generally based upon the needs and abilities of each party, using factors such as:
• Age of the parties;
• Health and physical condition of the parties;
• The earning capacity of the parties(e.g., taking into account the supported spouse’s marketable skills vis-à-vis the current job market for those skills);
• Present income of the parties;
• The extent to which the supported party contributed to the attainment of an education, training, a career position, or a license by the supporting party;
• The ability of the supporting party to pay spousal support, taking into account the supporting party’s earning capacity, earned and unearned income, assets, and standard of living;
• The duration of the marriage;
• The needs of each party based on the standard of living established during the marriage; and
• The jurisdiction of the marriage (in some jurisdictions).
When divorce statutes were fault-based, there were two additional factors courts considered: (1) degree of fault and (2) maintenance of status.

ENFORCEMENT OF ALIMONY AWARDS
An alimony award is essentially a court order, thereby making payment mandatory—based on the dictates of the order. If the payor fails to fulfill those obligations, he or she will be in contempt of court. As such, the court can take the necessary steps to compel the payor to comply with the order. Specifically, courts can choose either to pursue a civil or criminal proceeding against the scofflaw.
A civil proceeding has an underlying purpose of getting the delinquent payor to make the required payments rather than punishing the delinquent payor. Conversely, a criminal proceeding is used to punish the offender, which usually results in the imposition of some jail time. Remedies for nonpayment can include:
• Imprisonment for a prescribed period of time (despite the threat of imprisonment, many jurisdictions are unwilling to throw their debtors in jail)
• Judgment against the non-complying party (also enforceable in other states under the doctrine of full faith and credit)
• Seizure of property such as tax refunds
• Liens on real property
• Wage garnishments
If the reason behind nonpayment is due to an inability to pay, that argument can be advanced in a petition for modification of the award.

THE OBLIGATIONS IN ALIMONY AFTER DIVORCE

Once the order for alimony is directed, the one who pays support must continue to do so until the receiving partner weds again. If there are defaulting payments, such lapses or not delivering on the right date, one faces repercussions. This may include ordering the employer of the husband to deduct the spousal alimony from his monthly salary and make a direct recompense to his wife. One may also face contempt of court.

HOW ALIMONY IS DECIDED

Wife is earning
When the wife earns her own money, the law investigates the financial condition of the husband. If the husband is very prosperous then he is ordered to pay alimony to his ex-wife.

When the wife is non-earning
When the wife is non-earning, she is entitled to be paid alimony, which enables her to live on par with her husband’s financial status. The idea is to equalize the financial position of both spouses.

If the wife remarries
The husband is exonerated from paying his ex-wife alimony if she remarries. However, he will be liable to continue payment for the children.

Husband is jobless because of disability
In circumstances where the husband is sick, disabled or unable to earn a living, the wife pays alimony to her husband.

Duration of the marriage
Usually if the marriage is 10 years of age, the spousal support has to be life-long.

Age of spouse
The court takes into account the age of the spouse to be paid alimony. If he/she is young and has excellent career prospects, there is a possibility of a future job and income to support them. In this instance, the period of maintenance paid is shortened
Permanent Alimony and Maintenance under Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
Section 25 provides for the grant of permanent alimony and maintenance to any of the party to a marriage at the time of passing any decree under the Act or at any time subsequent thereto. The court shall take into account the status of opposite party in fixing the amount for maintenance. The court has been empowered to rescind or modify the order at any subsequent stage if the circumstances so warrant; and if petitioner becomes inchoate or remarries at any subsequent stage the court may at the instance of the other party vary, modify or rescind any such order in such manner as the court may deem just.

Sub-section (1) of Section 25 requires that an application must be made by the wife or the husband who is party to the main proceeding, if she or he wants the incidental relief of permanent alimony and such an application may be made in the main proceedings either before or at the time of passing the decree granting substantive relief of divorce or at any time subsequent to the passing of such decree.
“The relief of permanent alimony being an incidental relief it should not be a matter of any consequence whether the application for it is made prior to passing of the decree or subsequent to it. As a matter of fact, the relief of permanent alimony being a relief incidental to the granting of the substantive relief, it would be more consonant with reason that an application for such incidental relief should be maintainable after the passing of the decree granting the substantive relief.

After the amendment of the Hindu Marriage Act in 1976, the scope of the Act has widened and now it is mandatory for the court to grant full opportunity to the parties to substantiate their rival contentions by leading proper evidence. The court should take into account the other circumstances which may influence the grant or refusal of permanent alimony besides considering the income and conduct of the parties.
The right to permanent alimony accrues only when a decree has been passed in favour of the petition under Sections 9 to 13. In case no such decree has been passed in favour of the petitioner, the right to claim any maintenance or alimony is ruled out. Thus where a petition of the husband is dismissed under any of the sections i.e., Sections 9 to 14 the application for permanent maintenance filed by the wife under Section 25 of the Act will be rejected.

Still the wife could claim maintenance under Section 18(1) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 or under Section 125 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 The court cannot entertain any claim for maintenance in any proceeding under Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, which are maintainable under Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.

The provisions contained under Section 25 of the Act, are not controlled by Section 18 of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956. It is not necessary for a wife who has obtained a decree of judicial separation upon finding that the husband has deserted her to prove desertion within the meaning of Section 18(2) (a) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act.

Section 25 confers a special right on the indigent spouse while the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act confers an absolute right.
Section 25 cannot be construed in such a manner as to hold that notwithstanding the nullity of marriage, the wife retains her status for purpose of applying for alimony and maintenance. The proper construction of Section 25 would be that where a marriage is admitted to be a nullity, the section will have application.

But where the question of nullity is in issue and its contentions the court has to proceed on the assumption until contrary is proved that the applicant is the wife. It is in that sense that Section 25 should be appreciated.
Under the section, permanent alimony can be granted even to an earring spouse and the mere fact that the wife did not comply with the decree for restitution of conjugal rights and that was the cause for passing of a decree against her, cannot by itself disentitle her to claim permanent alimony under this section.

The fact that the wife was a guilty spouse can only be taken as a relevant factor in assessing the conduct of the parties and in determining the amount of permanent alimony.

In an important case, Gulab v. Kamal, the husband got the decree of divorce against the wife on the ground of misconduct and adultery. The wife moved an application for maintenance under Section 25 of the Act. The court held that a decree passed against the applicant on the ground of unchastity is no bar to his or her claiming maintenance either at the time of passing such decree or any time subsequent thereto.
The court has ample discretion to grant or refuse maintenance and the extent to which to grant the same, depending on the facts and circumstances of each case. But an adulterous conduct on the part of wife subsequent to the order of maintenance in her favour after the decree of divorce is passed would certainly negate her claim to get maintenance allowance in future.

In Patel Dharmshree Premji v. Bai Shankar Kanji,’ the Gujarat High Court affirmed the above proposition and held that even a guilty party to a marriage could obtain permanent alimony. It has further been said that a mother claiming maintenance for herself cannot include the amount of maintenance for her children therein and she must bring a separate suit for the purpose. On the question of reducing the amount of maintenance under Section 25 of the Act in proceedings for judicial separation the fact that the wife had been leading an adulterous life would be relevant and significant.

Under this section application for permanent alimony can be moved by either party to the marriage. The provision for permanent alimony even after the grant of divorce or decree of nullity is the specialty of the Act. There may be circumstances in which divorce between the spouses could be decreed by the court yet it is felt necessary that some amount of maintenance be fixed.
For example, where after the performance of marriage the wife becomes victim of some veneral disease or leprosy and on that ground divorce is decreed in favour of husband, if no permanent arrangement is made for her unkeep and amount of maintenance is not specified for the purpose, her life would become too miserable. Keeping such eventualities in mind the provision for permanent maintenance has been made which is very much desirable and reasonable.

In Verna Kallia v. Jatinder Nath Kallia the husband a doctor had settled in foreign country leaving his wife and a marriageable daughter in India. The payment of maintenance was denied by the husband upon the ground that the husband obtained divorce in foreign country to which the wife had acquiesced by accepting the maintenance under foreign judgment.

The court held that the foreign judgment of divorce was not binding upon her. Upon the facts of the case relying the Supreme Court’s view given in Surinder Kaur Sandlin v. Harbax Singh Sandlin. Further court allowed the decree of divorce in favour of wife upon the ground of cruelty, desertion and adultery since her husband had married in foreign country and was having three children there. Considering the status of parties, their future necessities, and claim for maintenance by wife for herself and daughter was allowed at the rate of Rs. 10,000 per month. Husband was also directed to deposit Rs. 10 lakhs for marriage of his daughter.

In Suresh v. Phoolwanti, there was decree of judicial separation in favour of husband on the ground of wife’s renunciation, as she had become a Brahma Kumari after taking a vow of celebacy as per requirement of the seat. The court also passed an order of permanent alimony in favour of wife at the rate of Rs. 450/- per month. It was said by the court that even though the family life was disrupted on account of the act of the wife yet she was entitled to get permanent maintenance.

Simply because the wife had deserted her husband without any lawful excuse ultimately resulting in a decree of divorce against her, she could not be deprived of her right to claim permanent maintenance on that account after the said decree. But where a decree of judicial separation is passed in favour of the husband followed by a decree of divorce after two years on the ground that during that period the husband had made no effort to compromise and there was in fact no compromise between them, they said omission on his part would be relevant fact to be considered while passing an order of permanent alimony against him.

In Shanta Ram v. Dagoo Devi, the court held that Section 25 of the Act, confers upon a woman whose marriage is void or is declared to be void, a right of maintenance against her husband. The right of maintenance can be enforced by her not only in proceeding under Section 25 but also in any other proceeding where the validity of her marriage is determined.

It can be claimed by her not only during the lifetime of her husband but also after his death against the property of her husband. Of course, his right of maintenance is available only during her life time and ceases if she remarries.
Recently in Babu Shahab v. Leela Bai, Bombay High Court has given a very important decision on Section 25 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. After considering the fact, the Court upholding right of maintenance to “illegitimate wife” or faithful “mistress” by liberal construction of word “wife” as contained in Section 25 of the Hindu Marriage Act cannot be said to be a good law, arc required to be overruled to that extent. The Court observed that illegitimate wife too can claim maintenance.

In Abbayolla M. Subba Reddy v. Padmamma, The court held that if the marriage admittedly is nullity of the Hindu Marriage Act, section 25 of the Act is not applicable, the relief of maintenance cannot be granted.
The court is empowered under the section to take note of changed circumstances and vary the amount of maintenance. In such matters neither the principle of res-judicata nor of estoppel would have any application to frustrate proceedings on the application for increasing the amount of maintenance.

It is well recognised in Hindu law that the right of maintenance is a substantive and continuing right and the quantum of maintenance is variable from time to time. Hence the extension of the principle of res-judicata or of estoppel in matters relating to variation of the amount of maintenance is beyond all contemplations and outside the purview of judicial considerations.

Under the section the right to permanent maintenance comes to a close in the following circumstances:
(1) Where the wife or husband has remarried;
(2) Where the wife ceases to remain chaste and in the case of husband where be develops illicit relations with another woman

By |October 11th, 2017|Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law|0 Comments

Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law

Alimony is a monetary compensation granted to the spouse who is unable to support himself/herself by the other spouse during or after the divorce proceeding.

There are two types of alimony generally and same applies according to the Indian Laws as well:

When it’s given during the time of the court proceedings, it is a maintenance amount. The second is when it’s given after the legal separation. After separation, alimony can be taken either as a one-time lump sum amount or a fixed payment, which could be monthly, quarterly and the like, depending on the requirement of the spouse. Alimony can be taken by either party depending on the case.

The court decides the amount of alimony/maintenance which is to be paid by the respective spouse after examining various parameters.

The income of the spouses, their standard of living and financial status are the factors considered. Spouse’s income, investments and net worth, as well as the financial needs of the individuals are taken into account.

Though there isn’t a fixed formula to quantify the amount, generally it is in the range of one fifth to one third of the gross earnings of the spouse who has to pay alimony.

The number of years the couple has been married, the number of children and the kind of emotional investment made are also considered. The husband can request stopping of payment or reducing the amount, if the wife manages to get another source of income.

While choosing the mode of payment, the lump sum is a preferred option. Lump sum gives certainty. A regular fixed pay out can stop after a while due to reasons like the supporting spouse losing his or her source of income or death. The lump sum amount is not taxable as you get it as capital receipt. However, if investments made from this amount earn returns, the return is taxable. The monthly payment route is taxable to the spouse who gets it.

Once the court passes the order, the supporting spouse has to pay alimony which was decided. If payments are not made on time, there are consequences where the court can take further action against the spouse.

How alimony is decided?

Wife is earning: Court looks into husband’s financial status. If his income is very high, wife will get some alimony.

Wife is not earning: Wife will get alimony that allows her to maintain a standard of living that is similar to that of her husband.

Wife remarries: Wife will not get anything. Husband will have to continue to pay for children, if any.

Husband is disabled and unable to earn: Wife can be asked to pay alimony.

The terms and conditions of payment of alimony in India vary from one personal law to another. None of the Indian personal laws are spared from criticism due to existence of laws in framing definite rules for granting alimony.

By |May 2nd, 2017|Alimony and Maintenance under Indian Law|0 Comments