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Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]
Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:
harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or
has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]

SCOPE
Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.
The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.
The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.

The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE
An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person

JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.

In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

*DIFFERENT KINDS OF ORDER ISSUED BY THE MAGISTRATE
PROTECTION ORDERS
After giving an opportunity to the aggrieved person and respondent of being heard and the magistrate is satisfied that a prima facie case of domestic violence has taken place or is likely to take place, pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person prohibiting the respondent from the following acts such as Committing any acts of domestic violence
Aiding or abetting in the act of domestic violence
Entering the place of employment of aggrieved person or if the person is child, its school or any other places
Attempting to communicate in any form including personal, oral or written, electronic or telephonic contact
Alienating any assets, operating bank account, bank locker held or enjoyed by both parties jointly or singly by the respondent including her stridhan
Causing violence to the dependents, or other relative or any other person who give the assistance to the aggrieved person or
Committing any other acts specified by the protection officer

*RESIDENCE ORDERS
The magistrate being satisfied that a domestic violence has taken place, pass residence order-
Restraining the respondent from dispossessing or in any manner disturbing the peaceful possession of the shared household
Directing the respondent to remove himself from the shared household
Restraining the respondent or his relatives from entering any portion of the shared house hold where the aggrieved person lives
Restraining the respondent from alienating or disposing of the shared house hold or encumbering it
Restraining the respondent from renouncing his right in the shared household
Directing the respondent to secure same level of alternate accommodation for the aggrieved person as enjoyed by her or to pay rent for the same if the circumstances so require.
No order shall be made against women under this section. Magistrate may impose additional condition and pass any other order to protect the safety of the aggrieved person or her child. Magistrate is also empowered to order direction the concerned station house officer of the police station to give protection to the aggrieved person r to assist in implementing his order. Magistrate may also impose on the respondent to direct stridhan or any other property or valuable security she is entitled
*MONETARY RELIEF
The magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses of the aggrieved person and any child as a result of domestic violence and such relief include

Loss of earnings
Medical expenses
Loss caused due to destruction or removal or damage of any property
Pass order as to maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as her children if any
Including the order under or in addition to an order of maintenance under section 125 criminal procedure code or any other law.
The quantum of relief shall be fair reasonable and consistent with the standard of living to which the aggrieved person is accustomed to. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent.

CUSTODY ORDERS
Magistrate can grant temporary custody of any child or children to the aggrieved person or to the person making application on her behalf and specify the arrangements for visit of such child by the respondent. Magistrate can refuse the visit of such respondent in such case if it may harmful to the interest of the child.

COMPENSATION ORDERS
Magistrate may pass order directing the respondent to pay compensation to the petitioner for injuries including mental torture and emotional distress caused by the acts of domestic violence committed by the respondent.
Copies of orders passed by the magistrate shall be supplied free of cost to the parties concerned and police officer and service provider
Any relief available under this Act may also be sought in any other legal proceedings before a civil court, family court or criminal court and such relief may be sought in addition to and along with relief sought for in suit, or legal proceeding before civil or criminal court

*CRITICISM
Some[who?] have criticized the law as having too little force, serving chiefly as a civil, rather than criminal, law—requiring a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a Protection Order issued under this law) before triggering criminal law sanctions against the respondent (such as arrest and imprisonment). However, groups involved in drafting the law believed this would provide more rapid and flexible relief for the victim.[5][6]

Men’s organizations such as the Save Indian Family Foundation have opposed the law, arguing that it might be misused by women during disputes.[3][7]
Renuka Chowdhury, the Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, agreed in a Hindustan Times article that “an equal gender law would be ideal. But there is simply too much physical evidence to prove that it is mainly the woman who suffers at the hands of man”.[8]
Former Attorney General of India Soli Sorabjee has also criticized the broad definition of verbal abuse in the act.[9]
According to the then President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, “Another disquieting trend has been that women themselves have not been innocent of abusing women. At times women have played an unsavory, catalytic role in perpetrating violence whether against the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law or female domestic helps. Instances exist whereby protective legal provisions for the benefit of women have been subjected to distortion and misuse to wreak petty vengeance and to settle scores. Some surveys have concluded that 6 to 10 percent of dowry complaints are false and were registered primarily to settle scores. It is unfortunate if laws meant to protect women get abused as instruments of oppression. The bottom-line therefore, is the fair invocation of legal provisions and their objective and honest implementation.”

*MATRIMONIAL DISPUTE:-
Questions arises when there is a property jointly owned, in matrimonial dispute were Wife had filed Application u/s 12 of Domestic Violence Act,2005 and sought protection u/s 18 of the Act the Property acquired jointly by Husband and Wife, Wife Prayed to restrain husband from enjoyment of flat, Husband filed application of interim relief of accommodation rejected and limited relief was granted to him from alienating.
Problems In Matrimonial Disputes:-

In matrimonial disputes, what are the real problems that confront a divorcing couple? Begin with the definition of divorce. Black’s Law Dictionary defines divorce as “the legal separation of man and wife.” The New Britannica – Webster Dictionary defines divorce as “a complete legal dissolution of a marriage.” Interestingly, however, marriage has a much broader definition. Britannica – Webster defines marriage as “the institution whereby a man and a woman are joined in a special social and legal relationship for the purpose of making a home and raising a family.”
Thus, it is interesting to see that marriage is viewed as a legal and social union of two people; however, divorce is merely viewed as the legal termination of said marriage. These definitions in and of themselves highlight one of the basic problems that occur when a couple chooses to divorce. Namely, although the legal system is equipped to deal with the legal problems that the couple faces when divorcing, it does not address nor is it equipped to deal with the social and emotional issues that confront the couple.

Once the emotional or social issues are dealt with, it makes the resolution of the legal issues that much easier. Taking it a step further, what most people really are arguing about is not legal or financial issues, but rather arguments fueled by their desire to get some form of revenge for a perceived wrong by the other spouse.
Once each of the participants is helped and supported to resolve the emotional and social issues, however, they are in a much better position to deal effectively with the legal and financial issues.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]
Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or
has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]

SCOPE
Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.
The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.
The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.

The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE
An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person

JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.
In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

*DIFFERENT KINDS OF ORDER ISSUED BY THE MAGISTRATE
PROTECTION ORDERS
After giving an opportunity to the aggrieved person and respondent of being heard and the magistrate is satisfied that a prima facie case of domestic violence has taken place or is likely to take place, pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person prohibiting the respondent from the following acts such as Committing any acts of domestic violence
Aiding or abetting in the act of domestic violence
Entering the place of employment of aggrieved person or if the person is child, its school or any other places
Attempting to communicate in any form including personal, oral or written, electronic or telephonic contact
Alienating any assets, operating bank account, bank locker held or enjoyed by both parties jointly or singly by the respondent including her stridhan
Causing violence to the dependents, or other relative or any other person who give the assistance to the aggrieved person or
Committing any other acts specified by the protection officer

*RESIDENCE ORDERS
The magistrate being satisfied that a domestic violence has taken place, pass residence order-
Restraining the respondent from dispossessing or in any manner disturbing the peaceful possession of the shared household
Directing the respondent to remove himself from the shared household
Restraining the respondent or his relatives from entering any portion of the shared house hold where the aggrieved person lives
Restraining the respondent from alienating or disposing of the shared house hold or encumbering it
Restraining the respondent from renouncing his right in the shared household
Directing the respondent to secure same level of alternate accommodation for the aggrieved person as enjoyed by her or to pay rent for the same if the circumstances so require.
No order shall be made against women under this section. Magistrate may impose additional condition and pass any other order to protect the safety of the aggrieved person or her child. Magistrate is also empowered to order direction the concerned station house officer of the police station to give protection to the aggrieved person r to assist in implementing his order. Magistrate may also impose on the respondent to direct stridhan or any other property or valuable security she is entitled
*MONETARY RELIEF
The magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses of the aggrieved person and any child as a result of domestic violence and such relief include

Loss of earnings
Medical expenses
Loss caused due to destruction or removal or damage of any property
Pass order as to maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as her children if any
Including the order under or in addition to an order of maintenance under section 125 criminal procedure code or any other law.
The quantum of relief shall be fair reasonable and consistent with the standard of living to which the aggrieved person is accustomed to. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent.

CUSTODY ORDERS
Magistrate can grant temporary custody of any child or children to the aggrieved person or to the person making application on her behalf and specify the arrangements for visit of such child by the respondent. Magistrate can refuse the visit of such respondent in such case if it may harmful to the interest of the child.

COMPENSATION ORDERS
Magistrate may pass order directing the respondent to pay compensation to the petitioner for injuries including mental torture and emotional distress caused by the acts of domestic violence committed by the respondent.
Copies of orders passed by the magistrate shall be supplied free of cost to the parties concerned and police officer and service provider
Any relief available under this Act may also be sought in any other legal proceedings before a civil court, family court or criminal court and such relief may be sought in addition to and along with relief sought for in suit, or legal proceeding before civil or criminal court

*CRITICISM
Some[who?] have criticized the law as having too little force, serving chiefly as a civil, rather than criminal, law—requiring a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a Protection Order issued under this law) before triggering criminal law sanctions against the respondent (such as arrest and imprisonment). However, groups involved in drafting the law believed this would provide more rapid and flexible relief for the victim.[5][6]

Men’s organizations such as the Save Indian Family Foundation have opposed the law, arguing that it might be misused by women during disputes.[3][7]
Renuka Chowdhury, the Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, agreed in a Hindustan Times article that “an equal gender law would be ideal. But there is simply too much physical evidence to prove that it is mainly the woman who suffers at the hands of man”.[8]
Former Attorney General of India Soli Sorabjee has also criticized the broad definition of verbal abuse in the act.[9]
According to the then President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, “Another disquieting trend has been that women themselves have not been innocent of abusing women. At times women have played an unsavory, catalytic role in perpetrating violence whether against the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law or female domestic helps. Instances exist whereby protective legal provisions for the benefit of women have been subjected to distortion and misuse to wreak petty vengeance and to settle scores. Some surveys have concluded that 6 to 10 percent of dowry complaints are false and were registered primarily to settle scores. It is unfortunate if laws meant to protect women get abused as instruments of oppression. The bottom-line therefore, is the fair invocation of legal provisions and their objective and honest implementation.”

*MATRIMONIAL DISPUTE:-
Questions arises when there is a property jointly owned, in matrimonial dispute were Wife had filed Application u/s 12 of Domestic Violence Act,2005 and sought protection u/s 18 of the Act the Property acquired jointly by Husband and Wife, Wife Prayed to restrain husband from enjoyment of flat, Husband filed application of interim relief of accommodation rejected and limited relief was granted to him from alienating.
Problems In Matrimonial Disputes:-

In matrimonial disputes, what are the real problems that confront a divorcing couple? Begin with the definition of divorce. Black’s Law Dictionary defines divorce as “the legal separation of man and wife.” The New Britannica – Webster Dictionary defines divorce as “a complete legal dissolution of a marriage.” Interestingly, however, marriage has a much broader definition. Britannica – Webster defines marriage as “the institution whereby a man and a woman are joined in a special social and legal relationship for the purpose of making a home and raising a family.”
Thus, it is interesting to see that marriage is viewed as a legal and social union of two people; however, divorce is merely viewed as the legal termination of said marriage. These definitions in and of themselves highlight one of the basic problems that occur when a couple chooses to divorce. Namely, although the legal system is equipped to deal with the legal problems that the couple faces when divorcing, it does not address nor is it equipped to deal with the social and emotional issues that confront the couple.
Once the emotional or social issues are dealt with, it makes the resolution of the legal issues that much easier. Taking it a step further, what most people really are arguing about is not legal or financial issues, but rather arguments fueled by their desire to get some form of revenge for a perceived wrong by the other spouse.

Once each of the participants is helped and supported to resolve the emotional and social issues, however, they are in a much better position to deal effectively with the legal and financial issues.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]
Contents [hide]
1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]
Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or
has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]

SCOPE
Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.
The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.

The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.
The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE
An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person

JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.

In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

*DIFFERENT KINDS OF ORDER ISSUED BY THE MAGISTRATE
PROTECTION ORDERS
After giving an opportunity to the aggrieved person and respondent of being heard and the magistrate is satisfied that a prima facie case of domestic violence has taken place or is likely to take place, pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person prohibiting the respondent from the following acts such as Committing any acts of domestic violence
Aiding or abetting in the act of domestic violence
Entering the place of employment of aggrieved person or if the person is child, its school or any other places
Attempting to communicate in any form including personal, oral or written, electronic or telephonic contact
Alienating any assets, operating bank account, bank locker held or enjoyed by both parties jointly or singly by the respondent including her stridhan
Causing violence to the dependents, or other relative or any other person who give the assistance to the aggrieved person or
Committing any other acts specified by the protection officer

*RESIDENCE ORDERS
The magistrate being satisfied that a domestic violence has taken place, pass residence order-
Restraining the respondent from dispossessing or in any manner disturbing the peaceful possession of the shared household
Directing the respondent to remove himself from the shared household
Restraining the respondent or his relatives from entering any portion of the shared house hold where the aggrieved person lives
Restraining the respondent from alienating or disposing of the shared house hold or encumbering it
Restraining the respondent from renouncing his right in the shared household
Directing the respondent to secure same level of alternate accommodation for the aggrieved person as enjoyed by her or to pay rent for the same if the circumstances so require.

No order shall be made against women under this section. Magistrate may impose additional condition and pass any other order to protect the safety of the aggrieved person or her child. Magistrate is also empowered to order direction the concerned station house officer of the police station to give protection to the aggrieved person r to assist in implementing his order. Magistrate may also impose on the respondent to direct stridhan or any other property or valuable security she is entitled
*MONETARY RELIEF
The magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses of the aggrieved person and any child as a result of domestic violence and such relief include

Loss of earnings
Medical expenses
Loss caused due to destruction or removal or damage of any property
Pass order as to maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as her children if any
Including the order under or in addition to an order of maintenance under section 125 criminal procedure code or any other law.
The quantum of relief shall be fair reasonable and consistent with the standard of living to which the aggrieved person is accustomed to. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent.

CUSTODY ORDERS
Magistrate can grant temporary custody of any child or children to the aggrieved person or to the person making application on her behalf and specify the arrangements for visit of such child by the respondent. Magistrate can refuse the visit of such respondent in such case if it may harmful to the interest of the child.

COMPENSATION ORDERS
Magistrate may pass order directing the respondent to pay compensation to the petitioner for injuries including mental torture and emotional distress caused by the acts of domestic violence committed by the respondent.
Copies of orders passed by the magistrate shall be supplied free of cost to the parties concerned and police officer and service provider
Any relief available under this Act may also be sought in any other legal proceedings before a civil court, family court or criminal court and such relief may be sought in addition to and along with relief sought for in suit, or legal proceeding before civil or criminal court

*CRITICISM
Some[who?] have criticized the law as having too little force, serving chiefly as a civil, rather than criminal, law—requiring a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a Protection Order issued under this law) before triggering criminal law sanctions against the respondent (such as arrest and imprisonment). However, groups involved in drafting the law believed this would provide more rapid and flexible relief for the victim.[5][6]

Men’s organizations such as the Save Indian Family Foundation have opposed the law, arguing that it might be misused by women during disputes.[3][7]
Renuka Chowdhury, the Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, agreed in a Hindustan Times article that “an equal gender law would be ideal. But there is simply too much physical evidence to prove that it is mainly the woman who suffers at the hands of man”.[8]
Former Attorney General of India Soli Sorabjee has also criticized the broad definition of verbal abuse in the act.[9]
According to the then President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, “Another disquieting trend has been that women themselves have not been innocent of abusing women. At times women have played an unsavory, catalytic role in perpetrating violence whether against the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law or female domestic helps. Instances exist whereby protective legal provisions for the benefit of women have been subjected to distortion and misuse to wreak petty vengeance and to settle scores. Some surveys have concluded that 6 to 10 percent of dowry complaints are false and were registered primarily to settle scores. It is unfortunate if laws meant to protect women get abused as instruments of oppression. The bottom-line therefore, is the fair invocation of legal provisions and their objective and honest implementation.”

*MATRIMONIAL DISPUTE:-
Questions arises when there is a property jointly owned, in matrimonial dispute were Wife had filed Application u/s 12 of Domestic Violence Act,2005 and sought protection u/s 18 of the Act the Property acquired jointly by Husband and Wife, Wife Prayed to restrain husband from enjoyment of flat, Husband filed application of interim relief of accommodation rejected and limited relief was granted to him from alienating.
Problems In Matrimonial Disputes:-

In matrimonial disputes, what are the real problems that confront a divorcing couple? Begin with the definition of divorce. Black’s Law Dictionary defines divorce as “the legal separation of man and wife.” The New Britannica – Webster Dictionary defines divorce as “a complete legal dissolution of a marriage.” Interestingly, however, marriage has a much broader definition. Britannica – Webster defines marriage as “the institution whereby a man and a woman are joined in a special social and legal relationship for the purpose of making a home and raising a family.”
Thus, it is interesting to see that marriage is viewed as a legal and social union of two people; however, divorce is merely viewed as the legal termination of said marriage. These definitions in and of themselves highlight one of the basic problems that occur when a couple chooses to divorce. Namely, although the legal system is equipped to deal with the legal problems that the couple faces when divorcing, it does not address nor is it equipped to deal with the social and emotional issues that confront the couple.

Once the emotional or social issues are dealt with, it makes the resolution of the legal issues that much easier. Taking it a step further, what most people really are arguing about is not legal or financial issues, but rather arguments fueled by their desire to get some form of revenge for a perceived wrong by the other spouse.

Once each of the participants is helped and supported to resolve the emotional and social issues, however, they are in a much better position to deal effectively with the legal and financial issues.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]

Contents [hide]
1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]
Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or
has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]

SCOPE
Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.

The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.
The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.

The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE

An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person

JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.

In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

*DIFFERENT KINDS OF ORDER ISSUED BY THE MAGISTRATE
PROTECTION ORDERS
After giving an opportunity to the aggrieved person and respondent of being heard and the magistrate is satisfied that a prima facie case of domestic violence has taken place or is likely to take place, pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person prohibiting the respondent from the following acts such as Committing any acts of domestic violence
Aiding or abetting in the act of domestic violence
Entering the place of employment of aggrieved person or if the person is child, its school or any other places
Attempting to communicate in any form including personal, oral or written, electronic or telephonic contact
Alienating any assets, operating bank account, bank locker held or enjoyed by both parties jointly or singly by the respondent including her stridhan
Causing violence to the dependents, or other relative or any other person who give the assistance to the aggrieved person or
Committing any other acts specified by the protection officer

*RESIDENCE ORDERS
The magistrate being satisfied that a domestic violence has taken place, pass residence order-
Restraining the respondent from dispossessing or in any manner disturbing the peaceful possession of the shared household
Directing the respondent to remove himself from the shared household
Restraining the respondent or his relatives from entering any portion of the shared house hold where the aggrieved person lives
Restraining the respondent from alienating or disposing of the shared house hold or encumbering it
Restraining the respondent from renouncing his right in the shared household
Directing the respondent to secure same level of alternate accommodation for the aggrieved person as enjoyed by her or to pay rent for the same if the circumstances so require.

No order shall be made against women under this section. Magistrate may impose additional condition and pass any other order to protect the safety of the aggrieved person or her child. Magistrate is also empowered to order direction the concerned station house officer of the police station to give protection to the aggrieved person r to assist in implementing his order. Magistrate may also impose on the respondent to direct stridhan or any other property or valuable security she is entitled
*MONETARY RELIEF
The magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses of the aggrieved person and any child as a result of domestic violence and such relief include

Loss of earnings
Medical expenses
Loss caused due to destruction or removal or damage of any property
Pass order as to maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as her children if any
Including the order under or in addition to an order of maintenance under section 125 criminal procedure code or any other law.
The quantum of relief shall be fair reasonable and consistent with the standard of living to which the aggrieved person is accustomed to. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent.

CUSTODY ORDERS
Magistrate can grant temporary custody of any child or children to the aggrieved person or to the person making application on her behalf and specify the arrangements for visit of such child by the respondent. Magistrate can refuse the visit of such respondent in such case if it may harmful to the interest of the child.

COMPENSATION ORDERS
Magistrate may pass order directing the respondent to pay compensation to the petitioner for injuries including mental torture and emotional distress caused by the acts of domestic violence committed by the respondent.
Copies of orders passed by the magistrate shall be supplied free of cost to the parties concerned and police officer and service provider
Any relief available under this Act may also be sought in any other legal proceedings before a civil court, family court or criminal court and such relief may be sought in addition to and along with relief sought for in suit, or legal proceeding before civil or criminal court.

*CRITICISM
Some[who?] have criticized the law as having too little force, serving chiefly as a civil, rather than criminal, law—requiring a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a Protection Order issued under this law) before triggering criminal law sanctions against the respondent (such as arrest and imprisonment). However, groups involved in drafting the law believed this would provide more rapid and flexible relief for the victim.[5][6]

Men’s organizations such as the Save Indian Family Foundation have opposed the law, arguing that it might be misused by women during disputes.[3][7]
Renuka Chowdhury, the Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, agreed in a Hindustan Times article that “an equal gender law would be ideal. But there is simply too much physical evidence to prove that it is mainly the woman who suffers at the hands of man”.[8]
Former Attorney General of India Soli Sorabjee has also criticized the broad definition of verbal abuse in the act.[9]

According to the then President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, “Another disquieting trend has been that women themselves have not been innocent of abusing women. At times women have played an unsavory, catalytic role in perpetrating violence whether against the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law or female domestic helps. Instances exist whereby protective legal provisions for the benefit of women have been subjected to distortion and misuse to wreak petty vengeance and to settle scores. Some surveys have concluded that 6 to 10 percent of dowry complaints are false and were registered primarily to settle scores. It is unfortunate if laws meant to protect women get abused as instruments of oppression. The bottom-line therefore, is the fair invocation of legal provisions and their objective and honest implementation.”

*MATRIMONIAL DISPUTE:-
Questions arises when there is a property jointly owned, in matrimonial dispute were Wife had filed Application u/s 12 of Domestic Violence Act,2005 and sought protection u/s 18 of the Act the Property acquired jointly by Husband and Wife, Wife Prayed to restrain husband from enjoyment of flat, Husband filed application of interim relief of accommodation rejected and limited relief was granted to him from alienating.
Problems In Matrimonial Disputes:-

In matrimonial disputes, what are the real problems that confront a divorcing couple? Begin with the definition of divorce. Black’s Law Dictionary defines divorce as “the legal separation of man and wife.” The New Britannica – Webster Dictionary defines divorce as “a complete legal dissolution of a marriage.” Interestingly, however, marriage has a much broader definition. Britannica – Webster defines marriage as “the institution whereby a man and a woman are joined in a special social and legal relationship for the purpose of making a home and raising a family.”

Thus, it is interesting to see that marriage is viewed as a legal and social union of two people; however, divorce is merely viewed as the legal termination of said marriage. These definitions in and of themselves highlight one of the basic problems that occur when a couple chooses to divorce. Namely, although the legal system is equipped to deal with the legal problems that the couple faces when divorcing, it does not address nor is it equipped to deal with the social and emotional issues that confront the couple.

Once the emotional or social issues are dealt with, it makes the resolution of the legal issues that much easier. Taking it a step further, what most people really are arguing about is not legal or financial issues, but rather arguments fueled by their desire to get some form of revenge for a perceived wrong by the other spouse.
Once each of the participants is helped and supported to resolve the emotional and social issues, however, they are in a much better position to deal effectively with the legal and financial issues.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]
Contents [hide]

1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION
The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]

Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or

has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]

SCOPE
Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.

The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.

The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.

The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.

While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE
An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person
JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.

In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

*DIFFERENT KINDS OF ORDER ISSUED BY THE MAGISTRATE
PROTECTION ORDERS
After giving an opportunity to the aggrieved person and respondent of being heard and the magistrate is satisfied that a prima facie case of domestic violence has taken place or is likely to take place, pass a protection order in favour of the aggrieved person prohibiting the respondent from the following acts such as Committing any acts of domestic violence

Aiding or abetting in the act of domestic violence
Entering the place of employment of aggrieved person or if the person is child, its school or any other places
Attempting to communicate in any form including personal, oral or written, electronic or telephonic contact
Alienating any assets, operating bank account, bank locker held or enjoyed by both parties jointly or singly by the respondent including her stridhan

Causing violence to the dependents, or other relative or any other person who give the assistance to the aggrieved person or
Committing any other acts specified by the protection officer

*RESIDENCE ORDERS
The magistrate being satisfied that a domestic violence has taken place, pass residence order-
Restraining the respondent from dispossessing or in any manner disturbing the peaceful possession of the shared household
Directing the respondent to remove himself from the shared household
Restraining the respondent or his relatives from entering any portion of the shared house hold where the aggrieved person lives
Restraining the respondent from alienating or disposing of the shared house hold or encumbering it
Restraining the respondent from renouncing his right in the shared household
Directing the respondent to secure same level of alternate accommodation for the aggrieved person as enjoyed by her or to pay rent for the same if the circumstances so require.

No order shall be made against women under this section. Magistrate may impose additional condition and pass any other order to protect the safety of the aggrieved person or her child. Magistrate is also empowered to order direction the concerned station house officer of the police station to give protection to the aggrieved person r to assist in implementing his order. Magistrate may also impose on the respondent to direct stridhan or any other property or valuable security she is entitled

*MONETARY RELIEF
The magistrate may direct the respondent to pay monetary relief to meet the expenses of the aggrieved person and any child as a result of domestic violence and such relief include

Loss of earnings
Medical expenses
Loss caused due to destruction or removal or damage of any property
Pass order as to maintenance for the aggrieved person as well as her children if any
Including the order under or in addition to an order of maintenance under section 125 criminal procedure code or any other law.
The quantum of relief shall be fair reasonable and consistent with the standard of living to which the aggrieved person is accustomed to. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent. Magistrate can order a lump sum amount also . On failure of the respondent to make payment of this order, magistrate shall order employer or debtor of the respondent to directly pay to the aggrieved person or to deposit in the court a portion of the salary or wage due to the respondent.

CUSTODY ORDERS
Magistrate can grant temporary custody of any child or children to the aggrieved person or to the person making application on her behalf and specify the arrangements for visit of such child by the respondent. Magistrate can refuse the visit of such respondent in such case if it may harmful to the interest of the child.

COMPENSATION ORDERS
Magistrate may pass order directing the respondent to pay compensation to the petitioner for injuries including mental torture and emotional distress caused by the acts of domestic violence committed by the respondent.
Copies of orders passed by the magistrate shall be supplied free of cost to the parties concerned and police officer and service provider
Any relief available under this Act may also be sought in any other legal proceedings before a civil court, family court or criminal court and such relief may be sought in addition to and along with relief sought for in suit, or legal proceeding before civil or criminal court

*CRITICISM
Some[who?] have criticized the law as having too little force, serving chiefly as a civil, rather than criminal, law—requiring a further offense by the accused respondent (such as violating a Protection Order issued under this law) before triggering criminal law sanctions against the respondent (such as arrest and imprisonment). However, groups involved in drafting the law believed this would provide more rapid and flexible relief for the victim.[5][6]

Men’s organizations such as the Save Indian Family Foundation have opposed the law, arguing that it might be misused by women during disputes.[3][7]
Renuka Chowdhury, the Indian Minister for Women and Child Development, agreed in a Hindustan Times article that “an equal gender law would be ideal. But there is simply too much physical evidence to prove that it is mainly the woman who suffers at the hands of man”.[8]
Former Attorney General of India Soli Sorabjee has also criticized the broad definition of verbal abuse in the act.[9]

According to the then President of India, Pratibha Devisingh Patil, “Another disquieting trend has been that women themselves have not been innocent of abusing women. At times women have played an unsavory, catalytic role in perpetrating violence whether against the daughter-in-law, the mother-in-law or female domestic helps. Instances exist whereby protective legal provisions for the benefit of women have been subjected to distortion and misuse to wreak petty vengeance and to settle scores. Some surveys have concluded that 6 to 10 percent of dowry complaints are false and were registered primarily to settle scores. It is unfortunate if laws meant to protect women get abused as instruments of oppression. The bottom-line therefore, is the fair invocation of legal provisions and their objective and honest implementation.”

*MATRIMONIAL DISPUTE:-
Questions arises when there is a property jointly owned, in matrimonial dispute were Wife had filed Application u/s 12 of Domestic Violence Act,2005 and sought protection u/s 18 of the Act the Property acquired jointly by Husband and Wife, Wife Prayed to restrain husband from enjoyment of flat, Husband filed application of interim relief of accommodation rejected and limited relief was granted to him from alienating.

Problems In Matrimonial Disputes:-
In matrimonial disputes, what are the real problems that confront a divorcing couple? Begin with the definition of divorce. Black’s Law Dictionary defines divorce as “the legal separation of man and wife.” The New Britannica – Webster Dictionary defines divorce as “a complete legal dissolution of a marriage.” Interestingly, however, marriage has a much broader definition. Britannica – Webster defines marriage as “the institution whereby a man and a woman are joined in a special social and legal relationship for the purpose of making a home and raising a family.”

Thus, it is interesting to see that marriage is viewed as a legal and social union of two people; however, divorce is merely viewed as the legal termination of said marriage. These definitions in and of themselves highlight one of the basic problems that occur when a couple chooses to divorce. Namely, although the legal system is equipped to deal with the legal problems that the couple faces when divorcing, it does not address nor is it equipped to deal with the social and emotional issues that confront the couple.

Once the emotional or social issues are dealt with, it makes the resolution of the legal issues that much easier. Taking it a step further, what most people really are arguing about is not legal or financial issues, but rather arguments fueled by their desire to get some form of revenge for a perceived wrong by the other spouse.

Once each of the participants is helped and supported to resolve the emotional and social issues, however, they are in a much better position to deal effectively with the legal and financial issues.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

CONSULTANCY FOR TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PUNE

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to protect women from domestic violence. It was brought into force by the Indian government from 26 October 2006. The Act provides for the first time in Indian law a definition of “domestic violence”, with this definition being broad and including not only physical violence, but also other forms of violence such as emotional/verbal, sexual, and economic abuse. It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders and not meant to penalize criminally.[1] The act does not extend to Jammu and Kashmir, which has its own laws, and which enacted in 2010 the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2010.[2]
Contents [hide]

1 Definition
2 Scope
3 Application to the magistrate
3.1 Jurisdiction of court
3.2 Different kinds of order issued by the Magistrate
3.2.1 Protection orders
3.2.2 Residence orders
3.2.3 Monetary relief
3.2.4 Custody orders
3.2.5 Compensation orders
4 Criticism
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

DEFINITION

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 differs from the provision of the Penal Code – section 498A of the Indian Penal Code – in that it provides a broader definition of domestic violence.[3]
Domestic violence is defined by Section 3 of the Act as[4] “any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent shall constitute domestic violence in case it:

harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or
harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or

has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or
otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.”
The Act goes on, through the section Explanation 1, to define “physical abuse”,”sexual abuse”, “verbal and emotional abuse” and “economic abuse”.[4]
SCOPE

Primarily meant to provide protection to the wife or female live-in partner from domestic violence at the hands of the husband or male live-in partner or his relatives, the law also extends its protection to women living in a household such as sisters, widows or mothers. Domestic violence under the act includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse whether physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic.[3] Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

The salient features of the Protection from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:

The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.

“Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.
The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.

The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers and NGOs to provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.

The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bail able offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
While “economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household, “physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.

*APPLICATION TO THE MAGISTRATE

An application regarding domestic violence can be presented to the magistrate seeking one or more reliefs mentioned in sections by:
The aggrieved person,
Protection officer on behalf of aggrieved person
Any other person on behalf of aggrieved person
JURISDICTION OF COURT
The first class magistrate court or metropolitan court shall be the competent court within the local limits of which
The aggrieved person permanently or temporary resides or carries on business or is employed
The respondent permanently or temporally resides or carries on business or is employed or
The cause of action arises.

Any order made under this Act shall be enforceable throughout India While disposing application the magistrate shall take in to consideration any domestic incident report received from the protection officer or service provider. The relief sought under this section includes the issuance of order of payment or compensation or damages without prejudice to the right of such person to institute suit for compensation or damages for injuries caused by the act of domestic violence. If the magistrate is satisfied that an application prima facie discloses that the respondent is committing or has committed an act of domestic violence or there is a likelihood of such violence, he may grant following exparte interim order against the respondent on the basis of affidavit of the aggrieved person. Magistrate can issue different orders such as Protection order, residence order, monetary relief, custody order or compensatory orders as per the circumstances of the case.

In case of an earlier decree of compensation or damages passed by any other court, in favour of aggrieved person, the amount if any paid shall be set off against the order of amount payable under this act. The application to the magistrate shall be as nearly possible to the formats prescribed under this Act and Rules. After receiving the application the Magistrate shall fix the date of first hearing within 3 days and the magistrate shall endeavor to dispose of every application be within a period of 60 days of the first hearing. The notice of the date of hearing shall be given by the magistrate to the protection officer who shall get it served to the respondent. At any stage of the application, the magistrate may order, counseling of the respondent or aggrieved person either singly or jointly with any member of service provider. The magistrate may secure the service of suitable person preferably a woman including a person engaged in the welfare of women for assisting the court in the discharge of its function. If the circumstance of the case so warrant and if either party so desires the magistrate may conduct the proceedings on camera.

Advocates in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune

Ved legal is Associated with expertise Advocates in Divorce and Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune, and have vast experience in the Family issues which arises after marriage, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below is the brief description of the jurisdiction and procedure followed in Family Court.
A divorce is among the most traumatic occurrences for any couple. To add to this, it can also be a long-winded and costly affair in India if the divorce is contested. Even couples that mutually agree to the divorce, however, must prove that they have been separated for a year before the courts consider their plea.
In India, as with most personal matters, rules for divorce are connected to religion. Divorce among Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains is governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, Muslims by the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act, 1939, Parsis by the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936 and Christians by the Indian Divorce Act, 1869. All civil and inter-community marriages are governed by the Special Marriage Act, 1956.
Types of Divorce Petitions:-
A couple can get a divorce with mutual consent, or either spouse may file for divorce without the consent of the other.
Divorce With Mutual Consent: When husband and wife both agree to a divorce, the courts will consider a divorce with mutual consent. For the petition to be accepted, however, the couple should be separated for over a year or two years (as per the relevant act) and be able to prove that they have not been able to live together. Often, even when either husband or wife is reluctant, they still agree to such a divorce because it is relatively inexpensive and not as traumatic as a contested divorce. Matters such as children’s custody, maintenance and property rights could be agreed to mutually.
There are three aspects regarding which a husband and wife have to reach a consensus. One is alimony or maintenance issues. As per law, there is no minimum or maximum limit of support. It could be any figure or no figure. The second consideration is custody of the child. This must necessarily be worked out between the parties, as it is inevitably what requires the greatest amount of time in divorce without mutual consent. Child custody in a mutual consent divorce can also be shared or joint or exclusive depending upon the understanding of the spouses. The third is property. The husband and wife must decide who gets what part of the property. This includes both movable and immovable property. Right down to the bank accounts, everything must be divided. It is not necessary for it to be fair, so long as it is agreed to by both parties.
The duration of a divorce by mutual consent varies from six to 18 months, depending on the decision of the court. Usually, the courts prefer to end mutual consent divorces sooner, rather than later.
As per Section 13 B of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 and Section 28 of the Special Marriage Act, 1954, the couple should be living separately for at least one year before divorce proceedings can begin. Section 10A of Divorce Act, 1869, however, requires the couple to be separated for at least two years. Do note that living separately does not necessarily mean living in different locations; the couple only needs to provide that they have not been living as husband and wife during this time period.
Divorce Without Mutual Consent: In case of a contested divorce, there are specific grounds on which the petition can be made. It isn’t as if a husband or wife can simply ask for a divorce without stating a reason. The reasons for divorce are as follows, though some are not applicable to all religions.
1. Cruelty
Cruelty may be physical or mental cruelty. According to the Hindu Divorce Laws in India, if one spouse has a reasonable apprehension in the mind that the other spouse’s conduct is likely to be injurious or harmful, then there is sufficient ground for obtaining divorce due to cruelty by the spouse.
2. Adultery
In India, a man that commits adultery (i.e. has consensual sexual intercourse outside of marriage) can be charged with a criminal offence. The wife may, of course, file for divorce as a civil remedy. If, on the other hand, a wife commits adultery, she cannot be charged with a criminal offence, though the husband can seek prosecution of the adulterer male for adultery.
3. Desertion
One spouse deserting the other without reasonable cause (cruelty, for example) is reason for divorce. However, the spouse who abandons the other should intend to desert and there should be proof of it. As per Hindu laws, the desertion should have lasted at least two continuous years. Christians, however, will not be able to file a divorce petition solely for this reason.
4. Conversion
Divorce can be sought by a spouse if the other spouse converts to another religion. This reason does not require any time to have passed before divorce can be filed.
5. Mental Disorder
If the spouse is incapable of performing the normal duties required in a marriage on account of mental illness, divorce can be sought. If the mental illness is to such an extent that the normal duties of married life cannot be performed.
6. Communicable Disease
If the spouse suffers from a communicable disease, such as HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea or a virulent and incurable form of leprosy, the Hindu Divorce Laws in India say that the other party can obtain a divorce.
7. Renunciation of the World
If the spouse renounces his/her married life and opts for sanyasa, the aggrieved spouse may obtain a divorce.
8. Presumption of Death
If the spouse has not been heard of as being alive for a period of at least seven years, by such individuals who would have heard about such spouse, if he or she were alive, then the spouse who is alive can obtain a judicial decree of divorce.
What is Alimony?
When two people are married, they have an obligation to support each other. This does not necessarily end with divorce. Under the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, the right of maintenance extends to any person economically dependent on the marriage. This will include, therefore, spouse, dependent children and even indigent parents.
The claim of either spouse (though, in the vast majority of cases, it is the wife), however, depends on the husband having sufficient means. When deciding how much alimony is to be paid, the courts will take into account the earning potential of the husband, his ability to regenerate his fortune (in case, say, the property is given to the wife) and his liabilities.
In case either spouse is unable to pay for the divorce, these expenses would also be paid by the spouse that does have an income.
What about child custody?
Many assume that the mother always gets custody of her children. This is not the case. While the courts usually agree to the decision of the parents in a mutual consent divorce, the courts are expected to see to the best interest of the child. In a contested divorce, the courts will examine the ability of the mother or father to be a parent to the child, for example. Money is not usually a matter that is considered. Non-working mothers are regularly given custody of their children, but fathers are expected to provide financial support.
What documents are required to file for divorce?
1. Address proof of husband
2. Address proof of wife
3. Marriage certificate
4. Four passport size photographs of marriage of husband and wife
5. Evidence proving spouses are living separately since more than a year
6. Evidence relating to the failed attempts of reconciliation
7. Income tax statements for the last 2-3 years
8. Details of profession and present remuneration
9. Information relating to family background
10. Details of properties and other assets owned by the petitioner
Annulment of marriage
Marriages in India can also be dissolved by means of annulment. The procedure for annulment is same as that of divorce, except that the grounds for annulment are different from that of divorce. Reasons for annulment are fraud, the pregnancy of wife by a person other than the husband, impotence before the marriage and subsisting even at the time of filing the case.
Once annulment is granted by an Indian court, the status of the parties remains as it was prior to the marriage.
Void marriage
A marriage is automatically void and is automatically annulled when law prohibits it. Section 11 of Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 deals with:
Any marriage solemnized after the commencement of this Act shall be null and void and may, on a petition presented by either party thereto, against the other party be so declared by a decree of nullity if it contravenes any one of the conditions specified in clauses (i), (iv) and (v), Section 5 of the Act.
Bigamy: If either spouse was still legally married to another person at the time of the marriage then the marriage is void, and no formal annulment is necessary.
Interfamily marriage: A marriage between an ancestor and a descendant, or between a brother and a sister, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood or by adoption.
Marriage between close relatives: A marriage between an uncle and a niece, between an aunt and a nephew, or between first cousins, whether the relationship is by the half or the whole blood, except as to marriages permitted by the established customs.
Voidable marriage
A voidable marriage is one where an annulment is not automatic and must be sought by one of the parties. Generally, an annulment may be sought by one of the parties to a marriage if the intent to enter into the civil contract of marriage was not present at the time of the marriage, either due to mental illness, intoxication, duress or fraud.
The duration for obtaining divorce varies from case to case and place to place. Generally speaking, contested divorce proceedings take 18 to 24 months. Mutual consent divorce varies from 6 months to 18 months.

Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune

Ved legal is Associated with expertise Advocates in Divorce and Domestic Violence around Pune, We give assistance to woman who are subjected to cruelty by her husband or his relatives, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below is the object of The Protection of Women

An Act to provide for more effective protection of the rights of women guaranteed under the constitution who are victims of violence of any kind occurring within the family and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Domestic Violence is undoubtedly a human rights issue and serious deterrent to development. The Vienna Accord of 1994 and the Beijing Declaration and the platform for Action (1995) have acknowledged this. The United Nations Committee on convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in its General Recommendation No. XII (1989) has recommended that state parties should act to protect women against violence of any kind especially that occurring within the family.

The phenomenon of domestic violence is widely prevalent but has remained largely invisible in the public domain. Presently, where a women is subjected to cruelty by her husband or his relatives, it is an offence under section 498-A of the Indian Penal Code. The civil law does not however address this phenomenon in its entirety.

It is, therefore, proposed to enact a law keeping in view the right guaranteed under articles 14, 15, and 21 of the constitution to provide for a remedy under the civil law which is intended to protect the woman from being victims of domestic violence and to prevent the occurrence of domestic violence in the society.

The Bill seeks to provide for the following:

It covers those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or through a relationship in the nature of marriage or adoption. In addition, relationships with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with the abuser are entitled to legal protection under the proposed legislation. However, whereas the Bill enables the wife or the female living in a relationship in the nature of marriage to file a complaint under the proposed enactment against any relative of the husband or male partner to file a complaint against the wife or female partner.

It defines the expression “domestic violence” to include actual abuse or threat or abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, or economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the women or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.

It provides for the rights of woman to reside in her matrimonial home or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in such home or household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by the Magistrate.

It empowers the Magistrate to pass protection orders in favour of the aggrieved person to prevent the respondent from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering workplace or any other place frequented by the aggrieved person, attempting to communicate with her, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the aggrieved person, her relatives or others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.