Ved legal is Associated with experienced Advocates in Divorce /Matrimonial Cases in and around Pune, and have vast experience in the handling Family issues which arises after marriage, Ved legal gives the proper consultation with the concrete solution to their clients, so that they can settle their dispute amicably. Below is the brief description of the jurisdiction and procedure followed in Family Court.
Marriage is an institution which is considered as sacred in India. But with the changing times marriage has become a subject of great judicial scrutiny. Before 1984 all family matters were seen by ordinary civil court judges who used to deal with matters like recovery of money or property. In 1984 the Government of India after the recommendation of the Law Commission in their 59th Report the family courts were created by a Gazette notification of the Central Government. This Act was known as ‘The Family Courts Act, 1984’.
The family courts exercise the entire jurisdiction which is exercised by any District Court or any subordinate civil court in the following matters-
- Matrimonial causes
- Maintenance and alimony of spouses
- Custody and guardianship of children
- Settlement of spousal property
Ved Legal is a team of Lawyers and Consultants practicing in Divorce, Domestic Violence /Matrimonial cases in Pune, and help to settle the family issues by conciliation.
Cruelty is one of the ground were either Wife or Husband can claim for Divorce.
Matrimonial matters are matters of delicate human and emotional relationship. It demands mutual trust, regard, respect, love and affection with sufficient play for reasonable adjustments with the spouse. The relationship has to conform to the social norms as well. The matrimonial conduct has now come to be governed by statute framed, keeping in view such norms and changed social order.
Divorce in general means the breakage or dissolution of marriage with the help of law, so that one can leave his or her spouse and become free from marital duties with some exceptions.
What Is Cruelty?
Every matrimonial conduct, which may cause annoyance to the other, may not amount to cruelty. Mere trivial irritations, quarrels between spouses, which happen in day-to-day married life, may also not amount to cruelty. Cruelty in matrimonial life may be of unfounded variety, which can be subtle or brutal. It may be words, gestures or by mere silence, violent or non-violent.
To constitute cruelty, the conduct complained of should be “grave and weighty” so as to come to the conclusion that the spouse cannot be reasonably expected to live with the other spouse. It must be something more serious than “ordinary wear and tear of married life”. The conduct taking into consideration the circumstances and background has to be examined to reach the conclusion whether the conduct complained of amounts to cruelty in the matrimonial law.
Conduct has to be considered, as noted above, in the background of several factors such as social status of parties, their education, physical and mental conditions, customs and traditions. It is difficult to lay down a precise definition or to give exhaustive description of the circumstances, which would constitute cruelty. It must be of the type as to satisfy the conscience of the Court that the relationship between the parties had gone to such extent due to the conduct of the other spouse that it would be impossible for them to live together without mental torture or distress, to entitle the complaining spouse to secure divorce.
Physical violence is not absolutely essential to constitute cruelty and a consistent course of conduct inflicting immeasurable mental agony and torture may well constitute cruelty. Mental cruelty may consist of verbal abuses and insults by using filthy and abusive language leading to constant disturbance of mental peace of the other party.
Impact of Physical and Mental Cruelty in Matrimonial Matters;
Prior to the 1976 amendment in the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 cruelty was not a ground for claiming divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act. It was only a ground for claiming judicial separation under Section 10 of the Act. By 1976 Amendment, the Cruelty was made ground for divorce. The words, which have been incorporated, are “as to cause a reasonable apprehension in the mind of the petitioner that it will be harmful or injurious for the petitioner to live with the other party”.
The Hindu Marriage Act-1955 has given the legal provision for divorce on basis of cruelty under section – 13(1)(ia) as follows;
“Any marriage solemnized, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground that the other party has, after the solemnization of the marriage, treated the petitioner with cruelty”.
On basis of this section we can explain this legal basis for the divorce as anybody who is getting suffered from the other party in physical manner or a mental torture or any other type of harassment then the other can reach to the court with this base and claim for the divorce. And there are various cases where courts held that the intention to be cruel is not an essential element of cruelty as envisaged under this section.
Any Female/Male who is victim of any physical, sexual or mental torture or any other type of harassment may go to the court and claim for appropriate relief or Divorce under section 13(1)(ia) of Hindu Marriage Act or may seek protection under the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 which protects Women to live fearless from Men surrounded by them.
Protection given to Women under Domestic Violence Act, 2005 are as follows:
- The Act seeks to cover those women who are or have been in a relationship with the abuser where both parties have lived together in a shared household and are related by consanguinity, marriage or a relationship in the nature of marriage, or adoption; in addition relationship with family members living together as a joint family are also included. Even those women who are sisters, widows, mothers, single women, or living with them are entitled to get legal protection under the proposed Act.
- “Domestic violence” includes actual abuse or the threat of abuse that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional and economic. Harassment by way of unlawful dowry demands to the woman or her relatives would also be covered under this definition.
- One of the most important features of the Act is the woman’s right to secure housing. The Act provides for the woman’s right to reside in the matrimonial or shared household, whether or not she has any title or rights in the household. This right is secured by a residence order, which is passed by a court. These residence orders cannot be passed against anyone who is a woman.
- The other relief envisaged under the Act is that of the power of the court to pass protection orders that prevent the abuser from aiding or committing an act of domestic violence or any other specified act, entering a workplace or any other place frequented by the abused, attempting to communicate with the abused, isolating any assets used by both the parties and causing violence to the abused, her relatives and others who provide her assistance from the domestic violence.
- The draft Act provides for appointment of Protection Officers provide assistance to the woman w.r.t medical examination, legal aid, safe shelter, etc.
- The Act provides for breach of protection order or interim protection order by the respondent as a cognizable and non-bailable offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to twenty thousand rupees or with both. Similarly, non-compliance or discharge of duties by the Protection Officer is also sought to be made an offence under the Act with similar punishment.
“economic abuse” includes deprivation of all or any economic or financial resources to which the victim is entitled under any law or custom whether payable under an order of a Court or otherwise or which the victim requires out of necessity including, but not limited to, household necessities for the aggrieved person and her children, if any, stridhan, property, jointly or separately owned by her, payment of rental related to the shared household and maintenance and disposal of household effects, any alienation of assets whether movable or immovable, valuables, shares, securities, bonds and the like or other property in which the victim has an interest or is entitled to use by virtue of the domestic relationship or which may be reasonably required by the victim or her children or her stridhan or any other property jointly or separately held by the victim and prohibition or restriction to continued access to resources or facilities which the victim is entitled to use or enjoy by virtue of the domestic relationship including access to the shared household,
“physical abuse” means any act or conduct which is of such a nature as to cause bodily pain, harm or danger to life, limb, or health or impair the health or development of the victim and includes assault, criminal intimidation and criminal force.